Recent events at the Innovation Hub

Since the Innovation Hub opened in July 2015, many visitors and volunteers have passed through its doors to scan documents from our holdings, attend presentations and conferences, and participate in brainstorming sessions as well as scanathons and editathons.

The Innovation Hub accomplishes an important part of NARA’s mission to make access happen through digitization, and also serves as an important event space to bring together both internal and external stakeholders for collaborative activities and cooperative learning. In 2019, the Innovation Hub hosted more than 130 events with a total in-person attendance of 2,331. 

Recently, we welcomed two student groups to the Innovation Hub who were interested in learning more about the work of the National Archives, how to conduct research, and ways to participate in scanning documents to make them more accessible online. 

Applied History students outside the National Archives Building in Washington, DC. Photo courtesy of @wshs_applied_history

Students in Brian Heintz’s Applied History class from West Springfield High School spend the school year learning about and visiting various institutions that interpret and present history. The information they learn during their visits prepares them for future internships at various institutions. During their visit to the National Archives Innovation Hub, their goals were to visit the museum side of the Archives, learn about conducting research, and scan original documents to learn about hands-on work that we do to make our records available online. During their visit, they scanned 1,627 pages of Compiled Military Service Records! These records will be available online in the National Archives Catalog in just a few weeks.

Students in the National Archives Innovation Hub. Photo by Catherine Brandsen

Additionally, the University of Maryland’s Student Archivists of Maryland, an organization of graduate students studying archival science, visited the Innovation Hub to learn more about our process for metadata collection and uploading digital files to the Catalog, while participating in a hands-on scanning event. Together they scanned 6 pension files of Buffalo Soldiers and Indian Scouts. One student even found a photo within the file! 

Photo found within pension files of Buffalo Soldiers and Indian Scouts at the National Archives Innovation Hub. Photo by Catherine Brandsen

I am proud to welcome these groups through our doors to share the important work being accomplished at the National Archives, and for the opportunity it affords to participate in conversations emphasizing the relevance of history and the historical record. Together we are raising awareness of the value of archives and archivists, and pursuing a path to elevate history to a greater role in our community and our nation.

Learn more about the Innovation Hub on our website. 

Museum of World Cultures Internship Reflection

Throughout the course of the semester, I have had an amazing opportunity to research and handle various artifacts from Pre- Hispanic Mexican cultures. I worked with figures from Veracruz, Colima, and the Chupicuaro culture, as well as village scenes and hollow figures from Jalisco. I was able to gain hands on experience handling and critically evaluating artifacts for damage and unique characteristics. Then, I recorded my observations in the artifacts’ catalog records in PastPerfect, updating the description and condition fields of each record. This work provided me with a glimpse into the technicalities of keeping good museum records. I now have a deeper appreciation for the amount of work and time it takes to properly care for and store artifacts.

Along with observing the artifacts to enhance the catalog records, I completed research to supplement their cultural history. This information was used to create a digital exhibit with the tool, Esri Story Maps. I incorporated information from the accession records, catalog records, and information gathered through my research to provide an interactive visual for individuals to engage with.




The digital exhibit includes images of each artifact and provides a descriptive overview of its background and possible uses.  A major challenged that I faced while creating the exhibit and gathering information was the lack of contextual information for many of the artifacts. These artifacts were donated years ago and their original context has been lost over time. This is crucial for ethnographic artifacts because modern day scholars identify their purpose and significance through provenance and location of discovery.

Overall, this invaluable experience taught me new skills involving museum curation and digital design. This internship allowed me to connect my passion for anthropology to my passion for Communication by providing a platform for other individuals passionate about the history of humanity to get involved.   

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Joyeux Anniversaire! Mario Braggiotti, host of WQXR’s “To France—With Music”

It’s the birthday of Mario Braggiotti, the late pianist, composer and host of WQXR’s To France—With Music. The New York Public Radio Archive is celebrating the occasion with a recently acquired broadcast recording of Mr. Braggiotti on WQXR’s The Listening Room. In this appearance, we experience Braggiotti as a beguiling pianist-raconteur, taking WQXR listeners on a musical trip through his fascinating life in 1920s Paris and beyond.  The complete September 5th, 1990 interview and performance is available in the media player at the top of this page.

                                                    *       *       *

Mario Braggiotti was born in Florence on November 29, 1905 to an Italian father and an American mother, both of whom were trained singers of opera and lieder.  The Braggiotti family moved to Boston in 1919, but by 1922 the 17 year-old Mario was back in Europe studying music in France, both at the Paris Conservatory and at the Fontainebleau School with Nadia Boulanger and Isidor Philipp.  It was while at the Paris Conservatory that he met fellow student Jacques Fray, with whom he formed the piano-duo Fray and Braggiotti.  The duo’s popularity grew quickly as they performed in the cafes and salons of Paris, and soon they found themselves touring Europe and embarking on a celebrated international career.

In 1928, Braggiotti befriended the composer George Gershwin, who was in France at the time developing ideas for his iconic work for orchestra An American in Paris.  Gershwin was taken with Fray and Braggiotti’s musical abilities and quickly cast them in the London production of his show Funny Face, starring Adele and Fred Astaire.

Advertisement; New York Daily News; 26 March 1931
(WQXR Archive Collections)

In 1929, after their run in London, Fray and Braggiotti arrived in the United States.  The following decade was filled with performances in some of the country’s premier venues —including a 1931 sold-out show at Carnegie Hall as part of an evening of French music with Maurice Chevalier.  The duo also made about 1,500 radio appearances, including regular spots on the popular CBS program The Kraft Music Hall

When the United States entered into World War II in 1941, the Fray and Braggiotti duo disbanded, ending their 19-year collaboration.  Mario Braggiotti enlisted in the United States Army and was assigned to the Office of War Information, working there as a radio broadcaster in Europe.

When the war ended, Braggiotti returned to the United States and resumed his musical career, but now as a soloist and as the star of his own one-man show. He also continued his work as a composer; adding to the two hundred-plus transcriptions for piano duo that he developed with Jacques Fray, he composed new scores for ballet, musical theater, solo piano, and commercials.

Print ad; February 1964
(WQXR Archive Collections)

In 1963, WQXR invited Mr. Braggiotti to take over as host of its program To FranceWith Music.  The show’s previous host for thirteen years was Braggioti’s former duo partner, Jacques Fray, who had died unexpectedly at the age of 59 in January of that year. Mario Braggiotti accepted, and his first broadcast as a WQXR host was on February 5th, 1963.  He filled his twice-weekly programs with recordings of the music of France and tales of his experiences there with his fascinating circle of friends —among them Igor Stravinsky, Maurice Ravel, Manuel de Falla, and Vincent d’Indy.

Braggiotti spent the last chapter of his life performing, composing and spending time at his homes in Tuscany and West Palm Beach, Florida. Mario Braggiotti died on May 18, 1996 at the age of 90.

Historic WQXR Themes

In response to those of you afflicted with historic thematic earworms and the crushing desire to identify them: The above themes are from the February 1962 WQXR Program Guide, below, from the February 1952 guide. We hope these lists will help.

WQXR show themes from the February 1952 WQXR Program Guide.
(WQXR Archive Collections)


BCGLA, Public History Initiative, and Queering the Archives

In May, I started an internship at the City of Vancouver Archives with the goal of supporting community outreach and engagement with the BC Gay and Lesbian Archives (BCGLA). This opportunity was provided through UBC’s Public History Initiative, which gives UBC students like myself an opportunity to apply academic skills outside the classroom and expand community engagement with history. Being both a history student and a member of the LGBTQ2+ community meant that this position held particular importance for me, and I had a passionate interest in increasing the visibility and public use of these holdings. 

Detail from Queer Visibility March, June 22, 1991). Reference Code: AM1675-S3-: 2018-020.1776

In the past six months working here at the City Archives, planning Pride events and other opportunities for public involvement, I have gained a new perspective on the depth of LGBTQ2+ histories in Vancouver and the importance of “queering” the archives. The Archives has acquired LGBTQ2+ holdings over the past 25 years with Ron Dutton’s BCGLA collection being the most recent acquisition in 2018. The LGBTQ2+ community has often had their history silenced in favour of a heteronormative narrative, but this collection of thousands of photos, textual materials, and hours of media footage ensures that the LGBTQ2+ history of BC is not overlooked. The BCGLA has emerged directly out of the community, representing a collection of stories that were often held in shoe boxes under beds and eventually made their way into an archival collection. These archives capture the existence of identity, community, and resistance, moving away from mainstream narratives and embodying the uniqueness of LGBTQ2+ experiences and histories here in BC. In their new home in the City Archives, these stories have been preserved and digitized to ensure that those in search of LGBTQ2+ history and community are able to find them. 

Vancouver Co-op Radio, ca. 1985. Reference Code: AM1675-S4-F25-: 2018-020.5199

Institutions like archives and museums have a particular responsibility in preserving historical materials and ensuring their public accessibility for research and personal interests. The LGBTQ2+ community has been a prominent part of British Columbia’s history, but has not always been a prominent part of institutional collections. Certain histories and narratives have been unfortunately left out or overlooked due to past biases or a lack of recorded material. This is where archives like the BCGLA come in. Ron Dutton’s collection of materials, and its continued preservation and digitization by the City Archives, emphasizes the persistence and presence of LGBTQ2+ history in BC. By acquiring, preserving, and making accessible the histories of members of the LGBTQ2+ community, the City Archives ensures that queer history is visible within the historical record. Especially with its recent focus on community outreach, it is working to create a space in which LGBTQ2+ histories can be shared, heard, and prioritized.

Act Up, ca. 1985. Reference Code: AM1675-S4-F20-: 2018-020.4167

In recent years, there has been an increased call for the “queering” of society, culture, and history. Queering, a shortened term for “queer reading”, advocates for a re-reading of the past and present to identify and subvert heteronormativity, while also elevating the presence of historically marginalized sexualities and gender identities. The BCGLA plays an important role in challenging the hetero and cisnormative narratives (the “straightwashing”) of BC’s past. Indeed, rather than telling a singular queer history, sources in the collection attend to the histories of multiple communities and individuals, offering a look into BC’s queer history well beyond what we are used to seeing. Ron’s collection of photographs touches on everything from softball teams, theatre productions, international women’s day, kink events, gender nonconformity, the trans community, anti-racist protests, Greater Vancouver Native Cultural Society events, coronation balls, documentaries on Vancouver’s sex workers – and the list does not end here. The BCGLA ultimately acts in direct defiance of those who have tried to silence LGBTQ2+ presence and history, and establishes queer communities within their rightful place in the broader history of Vancouver and beyond. 

Detail from Jiffy Pop (YouthCo ‘Zine), 2000. Reference Code: AM1675-S2-F568

The past six months have been a fantastic opportunity to take part in a queering of the City Archives as we took part in several events and hosted one of our own. Thanks to the invaluable support from the Vancouver Pride Society, we were able to attend East Side Pride, the Pride Proclamation ceremony at City Hall, and the Sunset Beach Festival. As well, thanks to the hospitality of the Queer Arts Festival, we were present at Stonewall 50: Glitter is Forever. On October 26, we held a photo identification event, hosted in partnership with the SUM Gallery and the folks at Queer Art Fest. At each of these events, we shared information and sources from our LGBTQ2+ collections, listened to community members’ stories, and asked for their help in identifying people in photographs. Recently, we have also implemented a new online photo identification tool for any members of the public who wish to comment on the photos within the BCGLA collection. 

Photo ID and news crews at the SUM. Photo by Heather Gordon.

In my time working with the City Archives, from the early Pride planning to putting together the event at the SUM, I was able to learn more about what work is being done here and why archives like the BCGLA are so important. What started out as a project to increase public awareness of the BCGLA and engagement with the materials developed, at least for me, into a multifaceted project to ensure that these archives are as recognized and utilized as others in the City Archives. Engaging communities whose histories are represented within the City Archives is an important process, and I am incredibly grateful to have been a part of this work. 

Uncovering Local Sharecropping through a General Store: The Van Brunt Business Records


Around thirteen miles North from downtown Tallahassee is Lake Iamonia. Families such as the Van Brunts historically developed the land around Iamonia as large cotton plantations. R.F. Van Brunt was born in 1862 and from 1902 to 1911 operated a general store and the Van Brunt plantation in the area. The collection primarily comprises store account ledgers like the 1911 Day Book on the left.

At first glance these financial ledgers may not contain anything other than store balances and goods sold. However, this collection sheds light on local sharecropping. Sharecropping was an agricultural labor system that replaced slavery following the end of the Civil War. Plantation owners used this system to keep many former enslaved people bound to their plantations to maintain their crop-driven businesses. 

Sharecropping contracts, like the one below found in one of the Van Brunt store ledgers contracting Randall Hayes, leased land to the sharecropper to cultivate a cash crop. At a specified date, the sharecropper had to produce the contracted quantity of which they kept a portion. VanBrunt04

The Van Brunt store ledgers help us understand the economics of sharecropping. The country store in Iamonia is one example of how credit networks drove sharecropping. At the beginning of the agricultural year, sharecroppers bought their seeds and supplies on credit. The store often supplied individuals for months at a time without receiving payment. Near the date on their contracts, sharecroppers paid their store account in several ways.

The entry for September 16th affirms that five individuals received a balance on their store account for labor “by hauling seed.”

Click to view slideshow.

While they could pay cash if they had it, sharecroppers paid their store balance down with agricultural goods as well. The entry from October 6th reveals that customers paid their store accounts down “by cotton.” Because they paid rent on farmland, and sometimes store balances, in cotton, local sharecroppers often settled their debt with the plantation owner and store during the harvest season.

Infrequent opportunities to settle accounts with plantation owners, natural disruptions, and crop failures meant that sharecropping easily became a cycle of debt that trapped African Americans on the same plantations that enslaved them or their parents.

We invite members of the FSU community and the general public to access our collections in our reading room on the first floor of Strozier Library Monday-Thursday from 10:00-6:00 and Friday from 10:00-5:30.

The 1911 Day Book and Sharecropping Contracts are also available for viewing in our digital library, DigiNole.

Click here to learn more about the Van Brunt Business Records.

Further Reading:

Paisley, Clifton. “Van Brunt’s Store, Iamonia, Florida, 1902-1911.” Florida Historical Quarterly 48 (1970): 353-367.

Alcatraz: November 1969

Indians of All Tribes 1

November 20 of this year marks the 50th anniversary of the Native takeover and occupation of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. Native activists took advantage of a clause in the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie that all retired, abandoned or out-of-use federal land should be returned to the Native people who once occupied it. Alcatraz closed as a federal prison in March 1963 and was abandoned by the government by 1964. On November 20, the first boat full of Native activists arrived to take possession of the island; they would remain on Alcatraz until forced out by the federal government on June 11, 1971.

Solidarity Rally

The Archives & Special Collections holds a wide range of materials both from the time of the occupation and retrospectives and other later publications. A selection of these items is on display on Frost Library A-Level through the end of the semester to mark this important anniversary.

Click to view slideshow.

Dropbox Transfer: Ahora puedes enviar archivos grandes a cualquier usuario

Dropbox te deja por fin mandar archivos grandes a cualquier usuario

Dropbox ya ha puesto en funcionamiento su servicio Dropbox Transfer con el que podrás enviar archivos a cualquier usuario.

dropbox archivos

Internet está compuesto de datos que van y vienen. Se comparten entre ordenadores, donde uno ofrece la información que aloja a aquellos que se conectan en su búsqueda. Esto es el concepto básico, donde en muchas ocasiones son los propios usuarios lo que generan estos datos que tienen que enviar a otros, pero no siempre se realiza de forma satisfactoria. Por eso, Dropbox estrena por fin su función para enviar archivos grandes a cualquier usuario.
Ya está aquí Dropbox Transfer

Es sabido por todos que cada vez generamos más datos en nuestros dispositivos. Las cámaras hacen fotos en mayor resolución, los archivos de trabajo son cada vez más pesados por lo detallados que son y las extensiones de los datos que incluyen… todo esto te suena seguro y es que los megas que ocupaba un simple Word ahora son mucho mayor al incluir una celda de Excel con sus gráficos y alguna que otra fotografía en su interior.

dropbox files

Al final, si te toca enviar una presentación de este estilo, tan completa y a todo detalle, los servicios de mensajería se quedan cortos y tienes que recurrir a otras opciones. Una de ellas llega de la mano de Dropbox Transfer. El servicio en la nube es conocido por todos y es uno de los más veteranos y hasta ahora solo permitía el envío de datos entre usuarios del servicio.

Pero quedémonos con lo bueno, y es que resulta que la firma ya cuenta con un servicio de envío de archivos más grandes. Los usuarios emisores tendrán la capacidad de cargar el archivo descargable con los archivos que quiera hasta cierto límite del que hablaremos más tarde. Al igual que se comparten archivos entre usuarios, los enlaces enviados se actualizan. Dicho de otro modo, los enlaces contienen un pequeño espacio en la nube que una vez activados, puede necesitar una contraseña o autorización, se pueden recurrir a ellos durante un tiempo determinados.

Hasta 100 GB de archivos en un solo envío

Si, esto suena muy bien. Dropbox Transfer te deja mandar hasta 100 GB de archivos de diferentes extensiones a otros usuarios que no usen el servicio. Eso si, para eso tendrás que rascarte el bolsillo. La versión gratuita del servicio cuenta con 100 MB de envío, pudiendo acceder a las estadísticas de número de entradas en el link, la contraseña y el tiempo de expiración, mientras que en las versiones premium se aumenta la capacidad y a caducidad.

Conservación de archivos de imágenes y documentos

Archivos de imágenes y documentos

Como coordinadora de Biblioteca Milenio de Historia, los últimos 12 años con mi equipo de Milenio hemos elaborado libros de historia sobre ciudades y estados de la República. Por ese motivo he viajado por todo el país y he conocido a los mejores historiadores de cada estado o ciudad. Con ellos he aprendido a conocer el pulso político e histórico de cada región. 

En todo este tiempo hemos conformado un archivo de imágenes históricas y actuales con sus pies de foto, además de textos de cada capítulo con sus notas al pie de página, bibliografía, semblanza de los autores de cada libro o investigación que hemos hecho. 

Les comento esta efeméride porque en estos 12 años la tecnología ha cambiado día a día. Y hemos tenido que cambiar de “aparatejos”. Mis archivos de imágenes han pasado del CD al disco duro y hoy a la nube. Y en el proceso la toma de la imagen, la digitalización, el resguardo, el inventariar cada imagen, tener listas y me acuerdo de Umberto Eco, sí listas de lo que tenemos y el miedo que se vaya a perder; hemos estado a la vanguardia, la tecnología ha sido parte de nosotros y sin embargo, como una vez me lo dijo Manuel Ramos Medina director del Centro de Estudios de Historia de México Carso, nuestros archivos los digitalizamos. 

Pero el documento en papel es el documento y ese es el que perdura. En mi celular tengo 17,000 imágenes de viajes, de familia, presentaciones de libros, gastronomía, arquitectura, amigos, etc. Sí, tengo contratado en Apple el icloud ¿Y??. No hay papel que respalde todas esas imágenes. Te mueres y que va a pasar con ese archivo, lo más probable es que se pierdan. O bien que Apple se quede con ellas. ¿Habrá un archivo digital universal? Facebook por cierto es dueña de nuestras imágenes que “posteamos”. 

Llevo tres días arreglando los archivos digitales de imágenes de gastronomía de un libro que estamos elaborando para Guanajuato. Los fotógrafos que contrato por cierto buenísimos te envían los archivos a “granel” sin las especificaciones de cómo se llama el platillo, donde tomaran la foto, el lugar. Claro la cámara dice Gto. No, yo quiero poner la cedula completa como se debe. Y ahí vamos, con el miedo de que algún día se pierdan estos tesoros o que se vayan al ciberespacio a ver quien los encuentra. 

Autor: María Isabel Saldaña

Continuar la lectura de este artículo aquí: 

Curso gratis del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) INDES


El Grupo BID trabaja para mejorar la calidad de vida en América Latina y el Caribe. En el ámbito del conocimiento, el objetivo es convertir el Banco en una institución bandera en la promoción de conocimiento abierto en la región.

El Instituto Interamericano para el Desarrollo Económico y Social (INDES) promueve productos de conocimiento abierto relativos al desarrollo económico y social en América Latina y el Caribe.

Somos un equipo de profesionales altamente cualificados y especializados en áreas estratégicas clave: desarrollo de las instituciones y el sector financiero, desarrollo económico, desarrollo social, infraestructura y cambio climático, e integración y comercio.

Nuestra misión es aumentar el conocimiento y fortalecer las habilidades del público objetivo en la región, así como de los empleados del BID, con el fin de promover el desarrollo económico y social en América Latina y el Caribe.

Desde 1995 el INDES ha colaborado con universidades, gobiernos, organismos internacionales de desarrollo y organizaciones de la sociedad civil para ofrecer cursos a poblaciones que eran difíciles de alcanzar. Juntos, ofrecemos una amplia base de conocimiento combinado lo más extensa posible.

A continuación, puede ver nuestra oferta de cursos clasificados según la temática:



Making Access Happen: NARA’s Leadership in the Digital Decade

The history of the National Archives records our longstanding commitment to the mission of preserving and providing access to the permanent records of the federal government. However, in no decade in our history have we provided greater access than in the one that is drawing to a close this month. Together, our staff developed values to collaborate, innovate and learn. Our focus on those values has resulted in unprecedented digital access to our records.

To make digital access happen, you need digital records and we are creating them at a rate that was unthinkable just a few years ago. Thanks to new software and hardware technologies, we are able to scan, index and provide access to digital copies of our records like never before.  Our digitization partnerships have resulted in tens of millions of digital copies of our records that we are making available in our Catalog. Ten years ago, NARA had 300,000 digital copies of our records available through the Catalog. Today we have 97 million and counting.  We are working toward a goal of having 500 million digital copies available through our Catalog by FY24. After that, we are on to our first billion.

In 2009, Making Access Happen meant that we provided descriptions of our records in our online Catalog and our digital presence was limited to our websites. Today our records are available on over 25 platforms and counting.  We started working with Wikipedia in 2011 and our collaboration has ensured that digital copies of our records are viewed over a billion times each year.  Our partnership with the Digital Public Library of America has resulted in more views of our records on their site than on our own.  Our digitization partners’ websites provided over 300 million views to our records in 2019.

We have come a long way over the past ten years to expand digital access to our records. By using new technologies and developing open and collaborative relationships, we are providing digital copies of our records to people who may never come to a National Archives building, may never click on to, but will see our records on social media, blogs, and websites from DPLA to GIPHY and more.  What a decade it has been! Just imagine what we will accomplish in the next one.

Jack W. C. Hagstrom MD (1933-2019)

Today the news reached us in the Archives & Special Collections that Jack W. C. Hagstrom MD (AC 1955) passed away late last week. We will offer a fuller tribute to Jack’s memory in the weeks ahead, but this post from 2012 gives some sense of how much he shaped the collections at Amherst College. Without Jack and his devotion to the poetry of Robert Frost, we would not have the world-class collection we hold today. We are all richer thanks to Jack’s efforts.

He will be missed.

The Frost Collection at Amherst College grew out of donations of books, manuscripts, and other materials from a variety of sources — mostly alumni and faculty who had relationships with Robert Frost. Among these, Jack W. C. Hagstrom (AC 1955) is chiefly responsible for the outstanding collection of audio tapes of Frost’s readings.

Jack W. C. Hagstrom (AC 1955)

During his years at Amherst, Jack developed a friendship with Frost and began collecting his work in earnest. In 1959 Robert Frost sent Jack a letter empowering him to gather copies of as many recordings of Frost’s “talks and recitations” as could be had. Our files from the 1960s are filled with correspondence with Jack and others about the acquisition and delivery of many of our Frost recordings.

Robert Frost to Jack W. C. Hagstrom, October 23, 1959

In the 1980s, all of our reel-to-reel Frost recordings were transferred to cassette tapes — a total of 171 tapes that range from March 1941 to December 1962, just one month before Frost’s death. These cassettes are available for use in the Archives and are listed in the Finding Aid to the Robert Frost Collection. Currently, none of our audio recordings of Frost are available online.

Another facet to our collection is the range of materials that document Frost’s appearances on film during his lifetime. We have fewer than a dozen films, but among them is one of the most interesting documents of Frost as a performer and a persona: Robert Frost: A Lover’s Quarrel with the World (1963).

This documentary by filmmaker Shirley Clarke won the Academy Award for Best Documentary in 1963 and it captures Frost in performance near the end of his life. It includes footage of Frost speaking at Sarah Lawrence and Amherst College along with interviews and other footage of Frost.

Frost speaking with Amherst College students.

This film was recently re-released as part of the Shirley Clarke project by Milestone Films (as reported in the New York Times in April 2012). A copy of the new DVD is available for viewing in the Frost Library circulating collection and two copies of the original 16mm film released by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston are available in the Archives & Special Collections.  Beyond the finished product of Clarke’s labors, the Archives also holds complete transcripts for all of the interviews conducted with Frost for the project. One can read the full text of the interviews to discover what parts did not make the final cut of the film. These transcripts sit alongside the many folders full of transcripts of other Frost tapes, including tapes of Frost not held by the Archives.

The documentary was part of a larger marketing campaign for Holt, Rinehart, and Winston who also released a book and a record of Frost reading his poems at the same time. The book, the record, and several copies of their advertising flyer are included in the collection.

Their advertising slogan — “Frost should be read…and seen and heard as well” — is most fitting for a poet who so frequently performed his poems and whose performances provide essential insight to his work.

Enslaved Lives in the Archives at FSU- Research Guide and ASERL Exhibit Update

A list of enslaved people that George Whitfield of Tallahassee owned as of 1862. [Original Object]

Special Collections & Archives wants to share some updates on our work surfacing and highlighting collections documenting local enslavement and sharecropping. Collaborating with the Tallahassee History and Human Rights Project in their creation of the Invisible Lives Tours produced a list of our archival materials that we wanted to make more visible and accessible to researchers and the general public. What followed was the creation of a research guide solely devoted to gathering our primary sources of Enslavement and Sharecropping in Florida in one place.

The guide aims to promote and support historical and genealogical research in Tallahassee and surrounding counties. In the guide you can find relevant manuscript collections, rare books, and oral histories available on-site and/or digitally. To find Special Collections research guides, navigate to the FSU Libraries home page, click on “Research Guides,” select “By Group,” and then select the drop-down menu “Special Collections.”

From that body of material, we digitized and submitted objects for inclusion in the Association of Southeast Research Libraries’ (ASERL) “Enslaved People in the Southeast” collaborative exhibit that debuted November 4th. The exhibit commemorates the 400 years that have passed since enslaved Africans were first sold in the English colonies in 1619 marking the beginning of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.

FSU and thirty-five other institutions offered a range of primary sources including “photos, letters, bills of sale, emancipation documents, insurance and taxation documents, and maps indicating segregation zones.” With this breadth of archival primary sources, “Enslaved People in the Southeast” seeks to show the social complexity of enslavement and its legacy across sharecropping, Jim Crow, and segregation. 

To access our collections, we invite members of the FSU community and the general public to our reading room on the first floor of Strozier Library Monday-Thursday from 10:00-6:00 and Friday from 10:00-5:30. We also encourage those interested to browse our digital library, DigiNole.

WQXR: The First to Use Tape

Such names as Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Paderewski, Grieg, Debussy, Rachmaninoff, Stravinsky, and Hindemith are probably familiar to WQXR listeners. But did you know that, like WQXR, they all used advanced music-playback technologies?[i] Dear reader, read on.


It’s a short walk from WQXR’s current studios in lower Manhattan to the corner of Church and Leonard Streets. That’s where the first purpose-built opera house in the United States opened in 1833. It was created by Lorenzo Da Ponte, who also wrote the words to some of the world’s most famous operas: The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte.[ii]


The music for those three operas was written by Mozart, who also wrote music specifically for playback on automated mechanical organs. Beethoven wrote the first version of his Battle Symphony for the panharmonicon, an automated mechanical orchestra.[iii] And, long before either of those musical masters (or anyone else named in the first paragraph) was born, Handel had already been programming automated musical playback devices.[iv]


John V. L. Hogan from the 1938 Radio Annual
(WQXR Archive Collections)

As for WQXR, it was born (as W2XR) in 1929, after the inventions of the phonograph and the gramophone, which not only played music but could also record it. W2XR began as an experimental television station, and its founder, John V. L. Hogan, would sometimes play classical music records from his collection to accompany the image transmissions. 


When the Federal Radio Commission made special high-fidelity channels available, Hogan got one of the first. Unfortunately, his old music discs couldn’t offer fidelity matching the new transmissions. To remedy this, Hogan and his engineer, Al Barber, obtained special “transcription” disc recordings and played them on “extended-range” turntables, with different audio filters inserted in the circuitry to match what was being played. There was also a live piano.[v]


The piano was soon joined by more instruments and musicians playing them; for many years, WQXR had an in-house string quartet, which made recordings available to the public.[vi] The station also started “cutting” recordings on 16-inch lacquer discs.[vii] But disc recordings still left much to be desired. They had a limited capacity – not enough to capture even just the first movement of Mahler’s Symphony No. 3 – couldn’t be edited, and were susceptible to noise and distortion caused by dirt and warping.


Today, when every smartphone can record and play music using semiconductor memories, it might be hard to imagine that sound recording was difficult in the 1930s, but it was. Semiconductor memories didn’t exist. Besides mechanical discs, the only options for audio recording seemed to be optical, as in a movie’s soundtrack, or magnetic.


The classical music for the 1940 movie Fantasia was recorded optically on film by the Philadelphia Orchestra at their home in the Academy of Music. But only a few reels at a time were permitted inside lest they burn down the building. The nitrocellulose base of the film was considered an explosive.[viii] Film also had to be developed before the sound could be played.


Magnetic recording of sound had been proposed by the 1880s and was demonstrated at the Paris World’s Fair in 1900.[ix] The original recording medium was a steel wire, which could be magnetized, demagnetized, and re-magnetized; it could also be cut and then tied, soldered, or welded together for editing. It seemed to have everything – except sound quality. It wouldn’t be until after World War II that magnetic tape recording, with its higher fidelity, would be introduced to the U.S.


Before WQXR moved to lower Manhattan, it was in midtown, and, before that, it was in Queens. Also in Queens at the time was radio engineer and inventor James Arthur Miller. Miller considered sound-recording options and came up with a unique hybrid of mechanical and optical technologies. The medium was a multilayer film that a stylus could cut into. After the cutting or carving into the opaque upper layer, the result looked like a variable-area photographic soundtrack that could be played optically. It required no chemical development, so it could be played immediately after recording. And it could be spliced for editing much the same as motion-picture film. Best of all, it had the highest sound quality of any recording medium available at the time.[x]


Detail photo of the Phillips-Miller Machine.
(Phillips Technical Review, March 1939)

Miller made a deal with the Dutch electronics manufacturer Philips to commercialize the product, and what became known variously as the Philips-Miller recording system, Philimil, Millerfilm, or Millertape was adopted by European broadcasters in the mid-1930s.[xi] In the United States, in 1938, WQXR was the first radio station to use the high-fidelity format, playing a BBC recording of Carmen.[xii]


After WQXR proved the utility and quality of the format, the Philips-Miller system seemed poised to sweep through the American broadcasting industry. NBC used it to record one of its programs, and high-power stations WOR in Newark and WTIC in Hartford installed the equipment.[xiii] By the beginning of 1940, another 13 stations of the Mutual Broadcasting System (MBS) had also adopted Millerfilm.[xiv] Even the background-music service Muzak used it, for “wide-range, high-fidelity sound [that] was superior to any on radio.”[xv]


Unfortunately, once the film was cut by a stylus, it could not be re-recorded, and Philips was the only source of uncut reels. Just months after the MBS stations installed Philimil reproducers, Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands, and the supply was cut off. In Germany, meanwhile, researchers had been working on a form of magnetic sound recording using neither wire nor steel bands but coated film or tape. Instead of the coating being an opaque layer that could be cut into, however, it was a layer of iron particles that could be magnetized. When World War II ended, magnetic tape recording technology was imported to the United States and swiftly developed to higher fidelity.[xvi] 


What about those semiconductor sound-recording memories in smartphones? When they get filled up, they’re often archived to “the cloud,” where the information is stored on the latest generation of, yes, magnetic tape.[xvii]



[i] Hope Lourie Killcoyne, editor, The History of Music, Chicago & New York: Encyclopædia Britannica & Rosen Publishing, 2016, p. 71

[ii] Joan Acocella, “The life of the man who put words to Mozart,” The New Yorker, January 8, 2007, pp. 70-76

[iii] Killcoyne

[iv] Tessa Murdoch, “Time’s Melody,” Apollo, November 2013, p. 80

[v] Bill Jaker, Frank Sulek, & Peter Kanze, The Airwaves of New York, Jefferson, NC & London: McFarland, 1998, p. 169

[vi] Andy Lanset, “The WQXR String Quartet,” October 16, 2018, <>

[vii] “Back in the Day: Artifacts through the Ages,” WQXR Features, Sep 28, 2011, <>

[viii] William E. Garrity & Watson Jones, “Experiences in Road-Showing Walt Disney’s Fantasia,” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, v. 39 n. 7, July 1942, p. 9

[ix] David L. Morton, Jr., “The Invention of Magnetic Sound Recording,” Sound Recording: the life story of a technology, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, pp. 50-54

[x] Russell Sanjek, American Popular Music and Its Business, volume 3, New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988, p. 140

[xi] Michele Hilmes, Network Nations: A Transnational History of British and American Broadcasting, New York & London: Routledge, 2012, p. 131

[xii] Jaker, et al., p. 170

[xiii] “Transcriptions,” Broadcasting, August 1, 1939, p. 53

[xiv] “Kyser MBS List,” Broadcasting, January 15, 1940, p. 24

[xv] Sanjek, p. 168

[xvi] Nick Ravo, “John Mullin, 85, Whose Magnetic Tape Freed Radio Broadcasters,” The New York Times, July 3, 1999, p. B7

[xvii] Kayle Hope, “Tape is here to rescue big data,” Quartz, February 28, 2019, <>

Remembering Cokie

Last spring, the National Archives Foundation Board voted to present the 2019 Records of Achievement Award to Cokie Roberts in recognition of her work as a journalist, political commentator, and historian.  With her untimely passing, last night’s award ceremony was, instead, a tribute program honoring her life and legacy.

Cokie dedicated her life to learning about and telling us the stories of women and their roles in our founding and in our government.  Her work extended far beyond the scope of well-known politicians and suffragists, often looking to ordinary women and their influence.  She did so much to highlight the contributions of other women, it was a privilege to honor Cokie for her many contributions at the National Archives. This past summer she graciously agreed to give the keynote at our annual Fourth of July celebration.  Her remarks brought attention to the forgotten women who helped contribute to independence and ultimately the right to vote.  In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband, John Adams, urging him to “remember the ladies,” and Cokie was determined to remember them as well.

As a member of the National Archives Foundation Board, Cokie worked tirelessly on behalf of our education and outreach activities.  Her wise counsel, intelligence, wit, and passion for the role of women in our society will be missed—but never forgotten.

Over ten years together, Cokie and I often found ourselves in the Rotunda of the National Archives where the conversation turned to the Barry Faulkner murals depicting the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.  Cokie ALWAYS bemoaned the fact that there were no women depicted.

In Cokie’s honor, last night Abigail Adams, Dolley Madison, Martha Washington, and Eliza Hamilton joined the ranks through the magic of projection technology.  The National Archives Foundation commissioned Port Townsend (WA) artist Samara King to bring equality to the murals for the evening.

Cokie would have loved it!

New Digital Collection – The Talisman

may 1909 (1)

The Talisman was a student run publication that was active at Florida State College for Women (FSCW), FSU’s predecessor institution. The magazine was published quarterly by the Thalian Literary Society and the Minerva Club, the first two literary debate societies of FSCW. The first issue was published in 1906 and it ran until 1914, when it was turned into a weekly newspaper called the Florida Flambeau. As the students put it in the first ever issue of the Florida Flambeau in January 23rd, 1915, “Things happen so rapidly that once every three months makes a slow visitor.”

may 1909 (2)

The Talisman was the first college literary periodical to be published in Florida. Each issue featured student writings, editorials, campus news, and updates on all departments, including music and athletics. It included spaces for student notes and campus directories. Not only did The Talisman provide an avenue through which students could express their thoughts, it also was a way for students and surrounding communities to be informed as to the happenings of our campus.

The Talisman now exists as a time capsule for us. The writings of these students paint a picture of what student life was like in those years. We can also trace the progress and growth of our university through these publications by reading the departmental news from those early years. The Talisman can be found in DigiNole with our other publications here. If you have any questions about this collection please contact the Heritage & University Archivist, Sandra Varry, at

#ISO30301: Información y documentación. Sistemas de gestión para los documentos.

Resolución de 1 de octubre de 2019, de la Dirección General de Industria y de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa, por la que se someten a información pública los proyectos de norma UNE que la Asociación Española de Normalización tiene en tramitación, correspondientes al mes de septiembre de 2019.

Publicado en:«BOE» núm. 243, de 9 de octubre de 2019, páginas 110953 a 110954 (2 págs.)

Sección:III. Otras disposiciones 
Departamento:Ministerio de Industria, Comercio y Turismo


En cumplimiento de lo dispuesto en el artículo 11.º, apartado e), del Reglamento de la Infraestructura para la Calidad y Seguridad Industrial, aprobado por Real Decreto 2200/1995, de 28 de diciembre («Boletín Oficial del Estado» de 6 de febrero de 1996) modificado por el Real Decreto 1072/2015, de 27 de noviembre («Boletín Oficial del Estado» de 14 de diciembre), y visto el expediente de los proyectos de norma en tramitación por la Asociación Española de Normalización, entidad designada por Orden del Ministerio de Industria y Energía de 26 de febrero de 1986, de acuerdo con el Real Decreto 1614/1985, de 1 de agosto, y reconocida por la disposición adicional primera del citado Real Decreto 2200/1995, de 28 de diciembre.

Esta Dirección General ha resuelto someter a información pública en el «Boletín Oficial del Estado», la relación de proyectos de normas españolas UNE que se encuentran en fase de aprobación por la Asociación Española de Normalización y que figuran en el anexo que se acompaña a la presente resolución, con indicación del código, título y duración del período de información pública establecido para cada norma, que se contará a partir del día siguiente al de la publicación de esta resolución.

De acuerdo con el artículo 4.4 del Reglamento UE 1025/2012, de 25 de octubre de 2012, sobre la normalización europea, durante el período de información pública los textos de estos proyectos se encuentran disponibles en la página web de la Asociación Española de Normalización:

Madrid, 1 de octubre de 2019.–El Director General de Industria y de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa, Galo Gutiérrez Monzonís.

Normas en información pública del mes de septiembre de 2019 
Código Título
Plazo (días  naturales)
PNE 53928 Plásticos. Vasos de polipropileno (PP) reutilizables para uso alimentario. Definición y método de ensayo. 20
PNE 58720 Mantenimiento preventivo de ascensores. 40
PNE 68114 Vehículos agrícolas. Uniones mecánicas entre vehículos tractores y vehículos remolcados. Especificaciones para enganches de balancín. 40
PNE 68115 Vehículos agrícolas. Uniones mecánicas en vehículos remolcados. Especificaciones para enganches de horquilla. 40
PNE 192007-1 Procedimiento para la inspección reglamentaria. Instalaciones eléctricas de baja tensión. Part. 1: Requisitos generales. 20
PNE-ISO 2328 Carretillas de manutención. Brazos de horquilla con gancho y tableros porta-horquillas. Dimensiones de montaje. 40
PNE-ISO 5707 Instalaciones de ordeño — Construcción y funcionamiento. 40
PNE-ISO 14080 Gestión de gases de efecto invernadero y actividades relacionadas. Marco y principios para las metodologías de acción climática. 30
PNE-ISO 30301 Información y documentación. Sistemas de gestión para los documentos. Requisitos. 20

Baking from the Archive

The NHS collections here at the University of Stirling Archives are consistently in our top three most used collections every year. I think it would be fair to say that the vast majority of enquiries we receive concern family history research which is always fascinating to undertake and we often have much to contribute. However, the NHS collections contain so much more than patient records with a wealth of varied material just waiting to be discovered. So this month, as Explore Your Archive launches, we’re inviting colleagues from all across the University, and members of the public too, to explore the theme of fundraising within the NHS collections with us.

To celebrate the theme, a baker’s dozen of colleagues from across Information Services will be recreating recipes from a cook book produced in 1925 to raise money for the new Falkirk Royal Infirmary. As much as Red Monkey chutney and stewed kidneys sounded delicious, we’ve stuck to cakes this time – teas and coffees will also be available so come along and join us for a mid-morning break in S10, Lower Studies Corridor, University Library (follow the colourful archive signs at the Atrium end of the Loch Bridge!) 10:00-12:00 on Thursday 21st November.

Recipes were sent in from all over the world

Choosing which recipes to bake was no mean feat but we’ve ended up with some well-known classics and some 1920s surprises, with a gluten free option available too. You’ll also have the chance to vote for your favourite gingerbread and sponge sandwich recipe from the book as some of our bakers go head to head with a few of the different available variations on these classics.

Whose will you prefer?

On the day we’ll be taking donations for Art Link who work to bring arts, crafts and creativity to patients across NHS Forth Valley. They will be using our donation for projects with mental health patients in the region.

Hope to see you there!

Roll up! Roll up! Fundraising posters from the Falkirk Royal Infirmary collection

Los Archivos conservan el tesoro documental para los investigadores

Sandri: La historia eclesial es una memoria del futuro

Los cuatro volúmenes de “La Cuestión Caldea y Asiria” suceden a la publicación de “La Cuestión Armenia”, realizado en siete volúmenes por el mismo autor, el p. Georges – H. Ruyssen SJ. El pasado sábado 9 de noviembre se llevó a cabo la presentación en el Pontificio Instituto Oriental. Presentes en el evento, el padre David Nazar SJ, Rector del Pontificio Instituto Oriental, el Prefecto de la Congregación para las Iglesias Orientales y Gran Canciller del mismo Instituto, Cardenal Leonardo Sandri, y Monseñor Farman, en representación del Patriarca Sako de la Iglesia Caldea.

Cardenal Leonardo Sandri, foto de archivo

Cardenal Leonardo            Cardenal Leonardo Sandri, foto de archivo
Ciudad del Vaticano

Este sábado 9 de noviembre se presentó en el Pontificio Instituto Oriental la obra en cuatro volúmenes “La cuestión caldea y asiria 1908-1938” del padre Georges-H. Ruyssen, SJ. Además del autor del libro, estuvieron presentes en el evento Monseñor Farman, en representación del Patriarca Sako de la Iglesia Caldea, y el Prefecto de la Congregación para las Iglesias Orientales, el Cardenal Leonardo Sandri.

Los cuatro volúmenes de “La Cuestión Caldea y Asiria”, suceden a la publicación de “La Cuestión Armenia”, realizado en siete volúmenes por el mismo autor, y constituyen, tal como afirmó el padre David Nazar SJ, Rector del Pontificio Instituto Oriental, una “garantía de sobrevivencia de una herencia cultural para cada iglesia oriental presente”.

El Cardenal Leonardo Sandri, como Prefecto de la Congregación para las Iglesias Orientales y Gran Canciller del Instituto Oriental, se dirigió a los presentes señalando algunas notas suyas entorno a la actualidad, la diplomacia y los archivos.
Historia siempre actual

En relación a la primera, expresó que “hojeando la introducción y las páginas”, parece “desgraciadamente leer los numerosos documentos que todavía llegan hoy de los representantes papales y de los pastores de las diversas Iglesias de Oriente Próximo y Medio, con muchas preguntas que estaban presentes entonces y que siguen estando presentes hoy”. Enunció entre ellos “las emigraciones forzadas y los episodios de persecución”, “el debate sobre la creación o no de espacios protegidos para los cristianos en Siria o en Irak, con los riesgos de los diversos nacionalismos asirios o caldeos”, “ el Líbano como único país que puede acoger a los cristianos de la región”, “las relaciones ecuménicas, las tensiones con algunos grupos evangélicos occidentales en el reparto de la ayuda y en los intentos de proselitismo”, y otros.
Sin la diplomacia los débiles tendrían aún menos voz

En relación a la diplomacia, el Prefecto destacó la labor de los delegados apostólicos, los nuncios y representantes ante la Sociedad de Naciones, señalando que “lo que algunos pueden entender como trabajo de escritorio, o como una forma de profesionalismo que se aísla del santo pueblo de Dios con sus alegrías y sus muchas pruebas y sufrimientos, a través del trabajo realizado por el Padre Ruyssen sale a la luz como una alta forma de acompañamiento y servicio a las Iglesias y a los pueblos, especialmente a los más probados, como un verdadero y propio servicio eclesial”. “Sin esta presencia capilar, – dijo – entonces como ahora, los débiles tendrían aún menos voz, y muchas tragedias pasadas en el silencio cómplice y culpable de los diversos actores internacionales”.

La historia eclesial es una memoria del futuro

Si la Iglesia “no hubiera conservado sus Archivos como un precioso tesoro de su propia identidad”, señaló por último, “esta obra”, fruto del “esmerado trabajo del p. Ruyssen y de los archiveros”, no habría “visto la luz”.

La historia eclesial es una memoria del futuro. Creo que lo que estamos viviendo sea uno de los primeros acontecimientos tras el Motu Proprio del Papa Francisco que cambia el nombre del Archivo Secreto Vaticano por el de Archivo Apostólico: “Reafirmando el deseo activo de servir a la Iglesia y a la cultura, el nuevo nombre pone de relieve el estrecho vínculo entre la Sede Romana con el Archivo, instrumento indispensable del ministerio petrino”.

La Iglesia – concluyó el cardenal citando al Papa Francisco – «no tiene miedo de la historia, es más, la ama, y quisiera amarla más y mejor, como la ama Dios».

Primer relato de viajes del que se tiene constancia en España

El Gaiás exhibirá el manuscrito con el itinerario que llevó a la noble romana Egeria desde Galicia a Tierra Santa

El primer relato de viajes del que se tiene constancia en España fue escrito hace 16 siglos por una aristócrata de la Gallaecia romana, Egeria, que recogió en él su peregrinación a Tierra Santa.

El manuscrito más antiguo en el que se narra este viaje, datado del siglo XI, está ya en el Museo Centro Gaiás, donde ha llegado procedente de la biblioteca italiana de Arezzo para exhibirse dentro de la muestra ‘Galicia, un relato no mundo’, incluida en la programación del Xacobeo 21 y que se inaugurará la próxima semana.

Egeria está considerada la primera mujer escritora de la que se tiene constancia en la Península Ibérica, así como la primera peregrina que relató su viaje en un diario, escrito a modo de cartas en las que describía aquellos lugares que recorría y que incluyen Egipto, Antioquía, Edesa o Constantinopla.

La ‘Peregrinatio Egeriae’ está recogida en el Codex Aretinus 405, descubierto en 1884 por Gian Francesco Gamburrini en la Biblioteca Arezzo. Este texto data del siglo XI, cuando fue transcrito a partir de un manuscrito anterior.

Desde su descubrimiento, el ‘Itinerario de Egeria’ ha sido objeto de numerosas ediciones y traducciones en todo el mundo. Pese a que el manuscrito se conserva incompleto, se trata de una de las fuentes más valiosas para conocer el papel de la mujer al final del Imperio Romano, la espiritualidad de la época o la transición entre el latín culto y el vulgar que, posteriormente, daría lugar a las lenguas romances.

La exposición ‘Galicia, un relato no mundo’ explora los mitos, la historia y la memoria de la identidad gallega a lo largo del tiempo y del mundo. Para ello, agrupa más de 300 piezas entre las que destacan elementos de la relevancia del Libro de las Invasiones, el Mapa de Sawley, la Biblia Kennikott o la ‘Santa’ de Francisco Asorey.

Archivos de la Stasi: salvando la historia uniendo los pedazos de documentos

Recomponer archivos hechos pedazos por la Stasi, un puzle de millones de piezas

Un documento de la Stasi que intentó destruir la policía secreta de Alemania del Este

Barbara Poenisch se pasa la mayor parte de los días haciendo puzles. O más bien recomponiendo la montaña de documentos que la Stasi, la policía secreta de Alemania del Este, trituró o rompió en pedazos durante la caída del Muro de Berlín.

La antigua encuadernadora forma parte de un equipo de diez personas que reconstruyen minuciosamente los informes de vigilancia, las cartas privadas y los documentos políticos que la Stasi había acumulado y que trató desesperadamente de destruir cuando el régimen comunista de Alemania del Este se derrumbó hace 30 años.

Cuando el Muro de Berlín cayó, el 9 de noviembre de 1989, la temida policía secreta comenzó a triturar sus archivos. Y cuando las máquinas se averiaron, los miembros de la Stasi empezaron a rasgarlos a mano para después convertirlos en una pasta o quemarlos.

Pero el 15 de enero de 1990, los “comités de ciudadanos” irrumpieron en las oficinas de la Stasi, incluso en la sede de Berlín Este, y confiscaron millones de archivos y unas 16.000 bolsas con documentos hechos trizas.

– ‘Un trabajo de detective’ –

Tres décadas después se siguen descubriendo los secretos de estos archivos, gracias a Poenisch y sus colegas.

“Me gusta hacer puzles y esta investigación es algo así como un trabajo de detective”, explica Poenisch, una alemana del Este. “Es gratificante poder juntar lo que rompieron hace 30 años, porque sé que un experto en archivos estudiará este material y nos ayudará a afrontar el pasado”.

El ministerio de Seguridad del Estado, con sede en Berlín Este y conocido como la Stasi, fue una de las herramientas de represión estatal más eficaces en sus casi 40 años de existencia.

Durante la Guerra Fría, empleó a más de 270.000 personas, incluidos muchos informantes entre la población, lo que convirtió a la sociedad de Alemania oriental en la más vigilada del bloque del Este.

Cuando el público pudo acceder a los archivos de Stasi, en los años posteriores a la reunificación alemana en 1990, miles de espías fueron desenmascarados.

Muchas personas se enteraron de que amigos o familiares eran “colaboradores no oficiales” de la Stasi.

Lo que Poenisch describe como su “pequeña contribución a la confrontación con el pasado” es en realidad un trabajo hercúleo con un impacto en la vida de miles de personas.

Poenisch asegura que la clave de su trabajo no es solo la paciencia, sino sobre todo su “enorme responsabilidad”. Lo explica mientras junta trozos de papel que sujeta a cada lado con pisapapeles antes de pegarlos.

Entre los documentos personales que ha conseguido recomponer figura una carta de una madre que ruega a la Stasi que libere a su hijo. “Fue hace unos años y me conmovió mucho”, cuenta.

– Una tecnología anticuada –

Desde el comienzo de la reconstrucción manual en 1995, se ha ensamblado el contenido de 500 sacos, el equivalente a más de 1,5 millones de páginas.

Los archiveros han hecho descubrimientos asombrosos, como los documentos que prueban el dopaje de atletas de Alemania del Este organizado por el Estado. Otros permanecerán ocultos durante años: una persona necesita un promedio de 18 meses para recomponer una bolsa de fragmentos, según Andreas Loder, responsable del equipo.

Cada saco contiene trozos de papel que equivaldrían a hasta 3.500 páginas, por lo que quedan unos 600 millones de pedazos de papel que, al juntarlos, constituirían cerca de 55 millones de páginas en total.

En 2013, el uso de nuevas tecnologías suscitó esperanzas. Pero el e-Puzler desarrollado por el instituto de investigación Fraunhofer IPK ha demostrado ser incapaz de manejar cientos de miles de fragmentos. Se está diseñando una nueva máquina.

Ute Michalsky, quien supervisa el trabajo de reconstrucción, reconoce que no puede prever si algún día se terminará de ensamblar. Por eso da prioridad a los documentos “que contienen información sobre personas vigiladas por la Stasi”.

Ley de Archivos para el Estado de Nuevo León

Ley de Archivos para el Estado de Nuevo León

Con la publicación de la Ley de Archivos en el Periódico Oficial del estado, el pasado 4 de noviembre, se da un paso “histórico” para la conservación de la documentación en Nuevo León. 

Buscan recuperar la memoria histórica de las nuevas generaciones. (Archivo)

Por ello, la directora del Sistema Nacional de Archivos, Mireya Quintos Martínez, adscrita al Archivo General de la Nacional, se reunió con integrantes de la Asociación Noreste de Archivos (ANA) en la sede del Poder Judicial.

En entrevista posterior, Quintos Martínez destacó que si bien toma tiempo que una ley publicada en el Periódico Oficial entre en vigor, señaló que en Nuevo León se han dado acciones acordes a la legislación.

“Con ley o sin ley, el estado ha estado trabajando en materia de archivos. No están en ceros y es algo que no se ve en todos los estados”, opinó Mireya Quintos Martínez, directora del Sistema Nacional de Archivos.

Tras una serie de intentos, que se remontan incluso a 2016 con la presentación de diversas iniciativas, el pasado 4 de noviembre se publicó la Ley de Archivos para el Estado de Nuevo León.

“Fue una reunión muy fructífera que nos sentamos con los miembros de ANA. Entonces puede ser un mecanismo para que nos estemos reuniendo y darle seguimiento, la idea es firmar un convenio con el Archivo General”, comentó.

Entre diversos puntos, la legislación contempla la creación del Sistema Institucional de Archivos, a través de un Consejo Estatal, incluye a instituciones públicas y privadas, además de establecer sanciones en delitos contra la documentación.

Como retos se plantean temas como la adecuada conservación y digitalización de los archivos históricos, descartar la documentación que no tenga mayor relevancia, así como integrar a instituciones como sindicatos, partidos políticos o archivos privados.

Se destacó que los sujetos obligados en la legislación se incrementan al contar con todos aquellos que manejen información de relevancia en memoria histórica, que es de interés público o porque ejercen un recursos público.

“Lo que se está generando hoy es la memoria histórica del futuro. ¿Por qué surge la ley? Porque se está identificando que las nuevas generaciones no están dejando historia”, agregó Quintos Martínez. Cabe señalar que Nuevo León fue hasta hace unas semanas uno de los pocos estados que no habían homologado su legislación a la Ley General de Archivos, publicada en junio del 2018.

Tras ser vetada por el Ejecutivo estatal, la ley fue publicada en Nuevo León el pasado 4 de noviembre.

El panorama La legislación contempla la creación del Sistema Institucional de Archivos, a través de un Consejo Estatal, incluye a instituciones públicas y privadas, además de establecer sanciones en delitos contra la documentación. Nuevo León fue hasta hace unas semanas uno de los pocos estados que no habían homologado su legislación a la Ley General de Archivos, publicada en junio del 2018.

Tras ser vetada por el Ejecutivo estatal, la ley fue publicada en Nuevo León el pasado 4 de noviembre.


Google Drive: compartir archivos y trabajar de forma conjunta entre varias personas

Cómo aumentar nuestra productividad con Google Drive 
El trabajo en equipo cada vez es más común en las empresas, tanto en las pequeñas y medianas, como en las más grandes. Para conseguir mejorar la productividad de nuestro equipo de trabajo podemos optar por la vía digital, la cual nos permite estar conectados en cualquier lugar del mundo.

Google Drive nos ofrece un método muy sencillo de compartir archivos y trabajar de forma conjunta entre varias personas, organizando así de una manera más efectivas todas las tareas. Además, no necesitaremos hacer ningún desembolso, dado que con el almacenamiento gratuito que nos ofrece Google, podremos almacenar y guardar en la nube infinidad de archivos.
Cómo aumentar nuestra productividad con Google Drive

Para comenzar a sacar partido a Google Drive tendremos que acceder a la plataforma, la cual es muy sencilla e intuitiva de utilizar. Una vez que estamos dentro podemos crear un archivo nuevo, no importa si es un documento de texto, hojas de cálculo o presentaciones, todas tienen un funcionamiento similar, el cual nos permitirá compartirlo con nuestro equipo de trabajo y funcionar de forma conjunta.

Este truco aumentará la productividad de tu trabajo en equipo

Una vez hemos pulsado sobre el botón “Nuevo” en la parte superior, elegimos el tipo de archivo que vamos a crear y se nos abrirá automáticamente otra pestaña con dicho archivo. Ahora le introducimos un nombre, para después poder compartirlo con quienes necesitemos. El proceso para compartir se inicia desde el botón en la parte superior derecha llamado “Compartir”.

Este truco aumentará la productividad de tu trabajo en equipo

Despues pulsamos sobre este botón y se nos abrirá un nuevo módulo, desde el podemos introducir el correo electrónico del compañero de trabajo, así como el nombre si los tenemos interconectado con Gmail. Además, podemos optar por crear un enlace y enviarlo a los compañeros desde cualquier otra plataforma, por ejemplo WhatsApp.

A la hora de compartirlo debemos fijarnos en el lápiz si vamos a enviarlo por correo electrónico, dado que si solo le damos permisos para ver, no podrán editar el archivo. En caso de utilizar el enlace, ocurre lo mismo, tendremos que elegir la opción “puede editar” para que todos aquellos que reciban el enlace, tengan permiso de escribir en él.

Este truco aumentará la productividad de tu trabajo en equipo
Si más tarde queremos editar los permisos, solo tendremos que pulsar sobre avanzado, para que podamos escoger quien puede editarlo, verlo o solo comentar.
Este truco aumentará la productividad de tu trabajo en equipo

Carpetas compartidas, el centro de trabajo

Una vez hemos aprendido a crear archivos, pasamos a las carpetas compartidas, permitiendo que otros compañeros de trabajo añadan sus propios archivos y documentos. El proceso es muy parecido, tendremos que ir a Google Drive y pulsar sobre nuevo para escoger Carpeta, aunque también lo podemos hacer con el botón derecha.

Este truco aumentará la productividad de tu trabajo en equipo

Una vez creada pulsamos solo una vez con click izquierdo y en la parte superior derecha nos aparecerá un icono destinado a añadir participantes. Después nos aparecerá el mismo módulo de compartir que vimos antes, el cual funciona completamente del mismo modo.

Digitized photographs from the Hugh Pickett fonds now online!

You may remember our blog post from last October when we announced that the Hugh Pickett fonds was available to researchers in person at the Archives. Now, thanks to the fundraising efforts of the Friends of the Vancouver City Archives, we are happy to announce that over 700 photographs from the fonds are now digitized and available online.

Hugh Pickett, ca. 1955. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F06-: 2014-089.0899

Hugh Pickett was best known as ‘Vancouver’s Impresario’. Pickett began his career working as a press agent for Hilker Attractions, and eventually ended up running the company with Holly Maxwell under the name Famous Artists Ltd. from 1947 until 1964. Famous Artists was an artistic management company dedicated to sponsoring appearances by artists and ballet and theatre companies in Vancouver and Victoria, and Pickett remained at the head of the company until he sold it in the mid 1980s.

Pickett was also heavily involved with Theatre Under the Stars (TUTS) and was its manager from 1952 until 1954. Over the years, he brought hundreds of famous actors, musicians and performers to Vancouver and secured Vancouver’s spot on many international tours. He acted as the manager for Marlene Dietrich for 12 years in the 1960s and 70s, and also was a leader in the campaign to save the Orpheum Theatre in the 1970s.

George Landon, Holly Maxwell and Hugh Pickett, 1954. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F06-: 2014-089.0930

Pat Prowd, Mitzi Gaynor and Hugh Pickett, ca. 1980. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F06-: 2014-089.0970-: 2014-089.0970.1

Hugh Pickett’s photographs series contains photographs documenting Pickett’s life, work, and youth. Images depict various artists and celebrities, TUTS productions and personnel, social gatherings, political gatherings, Spitfire Fund events, local and international trips, and family and friends. The photographs present a rare and lighthearted look into Vancouver’s nightlife, theatre and fascination with celebrity. Please enjoy this small selection of photographs:

Hugh Pickett seated in a crib at a charity auction, 1977. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F06-: 2014-089.1007

Marcel Marceau and Michael Jackson, 1988. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F06-: 2014-089.0928

Hugh Pickett and Phyllis Filler at Plaza International,1979. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F01-: 2014-089.0609

Ron McDougall, Leontyne Price and Hugh Pickett, 1975. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F01-: 2014-089.0690

H.M. Queen Elizabeth at a command performance of “The Chocolate Soldier” at TUTS, 1959. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F06-: 2014-089.1010

Yvonne Foster (Miss Canada) with Hugh Pickett and group, 1977. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F01-: 2014-089.0605

We’d also like to thank Ron McDougall for his help identifying people in the photographs. Ron is a long-time Famous Artists associate and friend of Pickett’s.

Jornada de formación en procedimientos de valoración documental

Los archiveros invitados a participar el jueves 7 en una jornada de formación en procedimientos de valoración documental

La jornada cuenta con la participación de cuatro ponentes que son reconocidos profesionales del mundo de los archivos de todas las administraciones, y está orientada a la formación permanente de los profesionales de los archivos de Castilla-La Mancha al ser la valoración documental una actividad técnica y profesional de gran trascendencia.
La valoración documental es la fase del tratamiento archivístico que consiste en analizar y determinar los valores primarios y secundarios de las series documentales, fijando los plazos de transferencia, acceso y conservación o eliminación parcial o total.

 Los archiveros invitados a participar el jueves 7 en una jornada de formación en procedimientos de valoración documental

El Gobierno de Castilla-La Mancha invita a los archiveros de la región a participar, el próximo jueves, día 7 de noviembre, en una jornada técnica para formarlos en procedimientos de valoración documental y las diferentes experiencias técnicas que se vienen realizando en los archivos.

La jornada cuenta con la participación de cuatro ponentes que son reconocidos profesionales del mundo de los archivos de todas las administraciones, y está orientada a la formación permanente de los profesionales de los archivos de Castilla-La Mancha al ser la valoración documental una actividad técnica y profesional de gran trascendencia que desarrollan nuestros archivos, sin olvidarnos del personal docente, historiadores y estudiantes universitarios.

En esta ocasión la jornada técnica se desarrollará en el Museo-Convento de la Merced de Ciudad Real (Plazuela de los Mercedarios, s/n), en horario de mañana y tarde, programándose cuatro ponencias en horario de mañana a las que seguirá por la tarde una mesa redonda en la que intervendrán todos los ponentes, con intervención del público asistente.

La inscripción a la Jornada es gratuita, previa inscripción hasta completar aforo. Más información en las Actividades de los Archivos que pueden consultarse a través de la web

La valoración documental es la fase del tratamiento archivístico que consiste en analizar y determinar los valores primarios y secundarios de las series documentales, fijando los plazos de transferencia, acceso y conservación o eliminación parcial o total.

Jornada sobre robos en documentos de archivo

Portalea acogerá una jornada sobre robos en documentos de archivo

La Asociación Vasca de Profesionales de Archivos ALDEE y el Archivo Municipal de Eibar han organizado una jornada para el próximo viernes en Portalea, de 9.30 a 14.30 horas, en el que se van a dar a conocer las afecciones más importantes que se producen en los robos y actos vandálicos con los documentos de archivo. Todos ellos son más comunes de lo deseado en los centros de conservación de documentos. Sin embargo, las medidas de seguridad suelen ser deficientes. Además de dar a conocer el riesgo que supone esta situación, la jornada tratará de trabajar en la prevención.

Así, con estas sesiones, organizada conjuntamente por ALDEE y el archivo eibarrés se pretende dar a conocer el riesgo y avanzar en la prevención.

Interesantes ponentes

Por ello, el objetivo del encuentro es impulsar el diálogo entre los agentes, los protocolos preventivos sostenibles y su implantación en los archivos vascos. Así, se contará con la participación de: Rafael Fresneda del Archivo General Regional de Murcia, Martina González de la Brigada de Protección del Patrimonio de la Policía Nacional, Pilar Sánchez, fiscal de Medio Ambiente y Urbanismo de la Audiencia Provincial de Bizkaia, Koldo Olabarrieta del área de Delitos contra el Patrimonio de la Ertzaintza y José Antonio Sainz del Servicio de Archivo de la Diputación Foral de Álava.Más información acerca del curso en la página web

Archives Staff Share Their Spookiest Record Discoveries!

This year in preparation for Halloween, the Archives staff rounded up some of the scariest things they have seen come past their desks over the years. So relax, eat some candy and enjoy perusing these creepy, weird and fun items from our holdings!

Granville Street Bridge news clipping, 1940s. Reference code: AM54-S17-MS11740

Archival Assistant Kim Unruh shared a newspaper clipping she came across from the Major Matthews Newspaper Clippings Collection. The clipping shows a 1940s Granville Bridge witch, complete with traffic jam poem. Still relevant today!

There were a few other ‘spooky’ clippings from the 19040s in the Major Matthews collection including this one found in the Ghosts of Vancouver  file – water pipe ghosts – BOO!

City Police Solve Haunted House Mystery clipping, 1942. Reference code: AM54-S17-M3495

Sue Bigelow, Digital Conservator forwarded the image below from the Stuart Thompson fonds showing a person in a costume standing beside a sports car. Stuart Thompson was a commercial, portrait and press photographer in Vancouver. Little is known about the context for this photograph but it sure is strange!

Person in gorilla/monster costume standing beside luxury sports model car, 1928. Reference code: AM1535-: CVA 99-1662

Digital Archivist Sharon Walz recalled seeing the below photograph from the Pacific National Exhibition (PNE) fonds showing a scary parade float featuring a giant papiermâché clown with missing teeth.

Pacific National Exhibition float in PNE Opening Day Parade, 1949. Reference code: AM281-S8-: CVA 180-1548

A quick search reveals that the PNE fonds is fraught with scary images of clowns and more!

Nancy Hansen, Miss PNE posing with clowns, 1954. Reference code: AM281-S8-: CVA 180-2641

Publicity photo of clown. 1960s. Reference code: AM281-S8-: CVA 180-5711

Young boy with model of a devil. 1960s. Reference code: AM281-S8-: CVA 180-3896

Al Ackerman, Johnny Cirillino and Chuckles–publicity photo of clowns, 1960s. Reference code: AM281-S8-: CVA 180-5663

Reference Archivist Kira Baker recently received a donation containing mold – a scary discovery for an archivist! The records are currently being treated and are separated so that they do not affect surrounding documents.

Moldy records, bagged until we can clean them. Photo by Kristy Waller

City Archivist Heather Gordon brought forward a file from Major Matthews’ personal papers entitled “Jack and Jill”, Mrs. J.S. Matthews’ two Chinchilla cats – Jack’s 20th birthday, Mar. 28, 1950. The file contains a clipping of hair from Matthews’ cat Jack. Jack passed away in 1950 and Matthews saved the hair along with news clippings, correspondence, cards and notes related to the death.

Envelope containing Jack’s hair and a note by Major Matthews, 1950. Reference code: AM54-S11-3—

According to Archival Assistant Christine Tutt, the Archives also keeps three files containing human hair – a lock of Clara A. Roger’s hair from 1910, a lock of Mara Ifju Smith’s hair (daughter of Sculptor Elek Imredy) from the 1970’s and a lock from Mrs. Emily Matthews found in the Major Matthews collection.

to all of the Archives staff for submitting these fab-BOO-lous items. We hope
you’ve enjoyed them.


1930s Costume Parties

Looking for some last minute Halloween costume inspiration? Ever wondered what Halloween looked like at Amherst nearly 100 years ago? While we don’t know what the students were up to, we do know that the faculty loved to dress up and held an annual Halloween party in the Pratt Gymnasium in the early 1930s. President Stanley King also held annual costume parties for the faculty on various themes, including the “Gay 90s” (which would be like a 1980s themed party now) and historical characters. Please enjoy some highlights pictured below and for many more pictures come in to look at the Amherst College Photograph Collection!

Click on images to view larger

WQXR: The Home of High Fidelity

To Ears!

All else being equal, stereophonic sound offers higher fidelity than mono, and WQXR has always been noted for its quality. When the Federal Radio Commission authorized special high-fidelity broadcasting channels in 1933, one of the first was assigned to what was then called W2XR.[i] WQXR even came up with its own, high-fidelity, radio-receiver/phonograph combo.[ii] Each cost $265 in 1938, equivalent to almost $5,000 today, but its quality was praised.


John V. L. Hogan
(WQXR Archive Collections)

In 1942, an article in the Proceedings of the IRE, the Institute of Radio Engineers, called the station’s founder, John V. L. Hogan, “purveyor of the highest-fidelity music from WQXR.”[i] As recently as 2009, when there was a change in WQXR’s transmission parameters, an editorial in Spectrum, the magazine of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), questioned the effect not merely on the station’s listeners or the radio industry but on civilization, itself![ii]

That might be, at least in part, because of WQXR’s long history of helping others achieve the highest quality. Hogan, for example, helped found the IRE, which merged with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (Hogan was a Fellow of both), to form the IEEE, now the world’s largest technical professional organization.[v] He sent engineers out to adjust neighborhood radio receivers.[vi] And he was happy to help competitors.


Although NBC had its radio stations, for example, it was WQXR’s FM station that carried a live concert of the NBC Symphony from Madison Square Garden on November 27, 1939, the first complete such program on FM.[vii] And, on July 18 of that year, even though WQXR had already applied for permission to broadcast FM, the station nevertheless provided the high-fidelity content for the first regularly scheduled broadcast by a different station, FM-inventor Edwin Armstrong’s W2XMN, in Alpine, New Jersey.[viii]


As for stereo sound, when the award-winning PBS television series Live from Lincoln Center broadcast New York City Opera’s production of The Ballad of Baby Doe on April 21, 1976, it marked the first time that more than half the population of the United States was able to watch a live television show with stereo sound.[ix] WQXR played a significant role. It wasn’t just that WQXR, the flagship radio station for the series, represented perhaps a fifth of the potential audience all by itself. And it wasn’t just WQXR’s rich history of stereo broadcasting of classical music.


In 1961, for example, WQXR became the first New York City radio station to begin broadcasting in the recently authorized FM stereo standard.[x] That was appropriate because the station’s chief engineer at the time, Louis Kleinklaus, had served on the National Stereophonic Radio Committee, which came up with that standard.[xi] And the station had previously proved that the “multiplexed subcarrier” technology involved would not cause interference when it used it to transmit facsimile editions of The New York Times in 1948.[xii]


In 1952, WQXR demonstrated stereo sound transmissions with one channel carried on FM and the other on AM.[xiii] By 1954, it wasn’t just a demonstration; all WQXR live music programming was broadcast that way.[xiv] Although it’s thought that WQXR was the first station to transmit stereo sound via AM & FM in this way, the idea of using two stations for two stereo channels is considerably older. In 1925, there were two-station (both AM) stereo transmissions in Europe and Connecticut.[xv] Of a two-station opera broadcast in Berlin that year, it was reported, “Whoever has an opportunity to hear this stereophonic transmission is surprised by the effect. The sound seems fuller and sharper in every detail. The different voices of a chorus become notably more distinguishable from each other and the orchestra.”[xvi]


The earliest known transmission of stereo sound was also of opera, though it wasn’t via radio. At the first international electricity exposition, in Paris in 1881, for months, visitors could listen to wired stereo opera transmissions by holding telephone receivers to their ears.[xvii] Author Victor Hugo was one of the listeners and was delighted by the effect.[xviii]


The QXR Network
(The New York Times/WQXR Archive Collections)

So, by 1976, electronically delivered stereo sound was almost a century old. But getting it live to more than half the U.S. population was still unprecedented. Live from Lincoln Center utilized the 13-city stereo transmission technology of the Metropolitan Opera Radio Network (of which WQXR was also the flagship), added geosynchronous satellite signals and regional wired networks, and topped it off with another technology WQXR helped pioneer: over-the-air FM networking (having FM stations retransmit the signals of other FM stations).[xix]


WQXR transmitted the first commercial over-the-air network program, Treasury of Music, on November 28, 1941, and continued it several times a week thereafter.[xx] By 1950, the station had achieved what was then “the largest hook-up of frequency modulation stations in the country” with 13 stations ranging from Niagara Falls to New Haven, plus Allentown and Scranton in Pennsylvania.[xxi] By 1959, “the largest commercial FM chain in the country” had expanded to 17 stations from Boston to Washington. Tens of millions could hear it in at least 13 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and Canada.[xxii] Despite multiple retransmissions, the sound quality was higher than could be achieved by wired networks at the time.


After the transition to stereo, the WQXR FM network continued to deliver high-fidelity, high-quality programming throughout the northeast. “But,” according to the station’s general manager Elliott Sanger, “the individual network affiliates, forced by lack of money, had to accept almost any kind of program and advertising offered to them, and that spelled the end of quality and cultural appeal which was characteristic of WQXR.” “In the early part of 1963, we decided to phase out the network operation, and, by that autumn, the WQXR Network was a thing of the past.”[xxiii]




[i] “High Fidelity on 1550 kc,” Radio Today, November 1935, pp. 18-19

[ii] Elliott M. Sanger, Rebel in Radio: The Story of WQXR, New York: Hastings House, 1973, pp. 48-50

[iii] George R. Clark, “Institute News and Radio Notes,” Proceedings of the IRE, v. 30, July 1942, p. 350

[iv] Glenn Zorpette, “It’s the Stupidity, Stupid,” IEEE Spectrum, v. 46, November 2009, p. 10

[v] “Architects of the IEEE,” IEEE Power Engineering Review, v. 4, March 1984, p. 11

[vi] Bill Jaker, Frank Sulek, and Peter Kanze, The Airwaves of New York: Illustrated Histories of 156 AM Stations in the Metropolitan Area, 1921-1996, Jefferson, NC & London: McFarland, 1998, p. 170

[vii] John V. L. Hogan, “What the FM Broadcasters Have to Say,” FM, October 1941, p. 20

[viii] Sanger, p. 50

[ix] Mark Schubin, “The First Nationwide Live Stereo Simulcast Network,” SMPTE Journal, v. 86, January 1977, p. 10

[x] “Multiplex Stereo Broadcasting Is Begun by Station WQXR-FM,” The New York Times, September 8, 1961, p. 63

[xi] “Louis J. Kleinklaus, Radio Engineer, 83,” The New York Times, November 18, 1994, p. B10

[xii] David W. Dunlap, “Looking Back, 1948: ‘A Newspaper Delivered by Radio,’” Times Insider, October 2, 2014 <>

[xiii] “’Binaural’ Music Broadcast Here,” The New York Times, October 31, 1952, p. 36

[xiv] “Binaural Devices,” The New York Times, March 21, 1954, p. XX9

[xv] John Sunier, The Story of Stereo: 1881-, New York: Gernsback Library, 1960, pp. 29-30

[xvi] Ludwig Kapeller, “Radio Stereophony,” Radio News, v. 7 no. 4, October 1925, p. 546

[xvii] “The Telephone at the Paris Opera,” Scientific American, v. 45, December 31, 1881, pp. 422-423

[xviii] Victor Hugo, “1881 11 novembre,” Choses Vues, v.2, Paris: La Librarie Ollendorf, 1913, p. 239

[xix] Schubin, pp. 9-12

[xx] Russell D. Valentine, “W2XQR Broadcasts Concert Music on FM,” Radio-Craft, March 1942, p. 397

[xxi] Sidney Lohman, “News of TV and Radio: WQXR to Program FM Network on Saturday,” The New York Times, June 25, 1950, section 2, p. 7

[xxii] “QXR Network to Add 2 Stations Bringing FM Chain’s Total to 17,” The New York Times, October 30, 1959, p. 16

[xxiii] Sanger, p. 168

Launch of Tales From the ring project

New boxing archive has a nice ring to it

Scotland’s proud boxing history is to be preserved in a new archive – housed at the University of Stirling – following a funding award by the National Lottery Heritage Fund. The University has received support from the National Lottery Heritage Fund to create ‘Tales from the Ring: Celebrating Scotland’s Boxing Heritage’. The project will work with 12 members of the Scottish Ex-Boxers Association to create an archive of material and oral histories to identify and explain the country’s boxing heritage.

An accompanying exhibition will also be created, with the items on display at the University’s Stirling campus from January to March 2020. It will also be available to experience online, allowing as wide an audience as possible to learn about Scotland’s boxing heritage.

We are delighted to receive this funding from the National Lottery Heritage Fund to help us promote and preserve the history of Scottish boxing. The University of Stirling Archives holds one of the largest collections of sporting archives in the country, including the Commonwealth Games Scotland Archive, and this new project continues our commitment to supporting Scotland’s sporting heritage

Karl Magee, University Archivist

Ex-boxers already taking part in the project include Dick McTaggart, gold medallist at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics and 1958 Cardiff Commonwealth Games. The project team are keen to hear from other ex-boxers and their families who are interested in providing an oral history or items for the exhibition.

The project, supported by £9,900 from the National Lottery Heritage Fund will archive items to international standards ensuring their long-term preservation and protection. The University’s expert team of archivists will also provide training to members of Sporting Memories Foundation Scotland, supporting them in their work bringing people together through the power of sport.

Our sporting heritage is part of the rich tapestry on which our lives are built. The National Lottery Heritage Fund wants to inspire as many people as possible to learn from and enjoy that rich legacy, as well as keeping it safe for future generation. We’re delighted that Tales from the Ring is helping do just that and we wish them well.

Caroline Clark, Director of Scotland, National Lottery Heritage Fund

The National Lottery Heritage Fund uses money raised by the National Lottery to inspire, lead and resource the UK’s heritage to create positive and lasting change for people and communities, now and in the future.

The Tales from the Ring project will collect, protect and preserve material relating to the history of Scottish boxing.