Memories That Haunt and Reaffirm

This post is part of a series of blog posts related to the Autry’s Undisciplined Research Project. To learn more, read the introduction by David Burton, Senior Director of the Autry’s Institute for the Study of the American West.

The cross-pollination approach of the Undisciplined Research Project drove my investigation into these complex narratives told by former residents of Indian boarding schools. I looked at the visual history footage through the prisms of documentary filmmaking, art, and history; these were my fellow researchers’ areas of expertise in this experimental endeavor of interdisciplinary scholarship. As I am a playwright, so I also researched from the perspective of theatre.

I watched the recommended documentaries The Thick Dark Fog and The Wellbriety Movement: Journey to Forgiveness. In the Libraries and Archives of the Autry, I studied some of the artwork made in Native boarding schools, as well as letters, school pamphlets, newspapers, newsletters, and articles that described various art programs in residential schools. As I was on the east coast for part of this time, I traveled to Pennsylvania and visited the Carlisle Indian Industrial School historic site. Founded in 1879 by Captain Richard Henry Pratt, it is considered the prototypical or model Native residential school. Over 10,000 indigenous schoolchildren attended it. Pratt’s infamous motto was, “Kill the Indian in him, save the man.” In addition, I looked at photos, tests, and essays related to boarding school experiences in the Autry’s archives and correlated them to aspects of the thirteen Cante Sica visual histories. One of the pamphlets in the Autry collection is the printed transcript of an actual 1915 speech Pratt wrote and delivered in Washington, D.C., titled “Indian Schools: An Exposure.”

Booklet, Indian Schools: An Exposure. Address before the ladies missionary societies of the Calvary M.E. Church, Washington, D.C., April 6, by R. H. Pratt, 1915. Autry Library, Autry National Center; E97.5.P6 1915
Booklet, Indian Schools: An Exposure. Address before the ladies missionary societies of the Calvary M.E. Church, Washington, D.C., April 6, by R. H. Pratt, 1915. Autry Library, Autry National Center; E97.5.P6 1915

I learned a great deal from visiting the Cumberland County Historical Society Museum, also in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. I viewed their special Indian School exhibit about the history of the school and some of the Carlisle Indian School students, including renowned athlete Jim Thorpe of the Sac and Fox Nation. There was information about the clothing the indigenous children were forced to wear, the traumatic experiences of haircutting, and the “practical art” they made in classes, such as baskets, pottery, and dinnerware. One of the most famous Carlisle photos, taken in 1884, is of indigenous students in front of Pratt’s home. How hard it must have been for the children to fit into this picture; they must have felt crowded together, herded. You can compare it my photo of the same spot today; the front portico of the home was modified in 1913.

Student body on the grounds of Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1884. Photo by John N. Choate. Courtesy of Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA
Student body on the grounds of Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1884. Photo by John N. Choate. Courtesy of Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA
Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Photo courtesy of Laura Shamas
Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Photo courtesy of Laura Shamas

While at Carlisle, I was dismayed to learn that the graves of 186 Native children from nearly 50 nations—who died while attending the school—had been moved in 1931 from an original burial site to another location next to a road. I’ve since read that there were no Native ceremonies involved in the relocation of their graves, and that initially they all had Christian burials. These Native children have not been able to “rest in peace.” Why was a new cemetery for the children created only a few feet away from a busy street? I also noticed that on each of the grave markers, some inscribed merely with “Unknown,” a solitary penny or coins had been placed. Because this cemetery is located in what is now the U.S. Army’s Carlisle Barracks Garrison, and as visitors come from around the world, it’s impossible to know for certain the intended significance of the coins. In many cultures, a single penny on a grave is intended as a remembrance, as evidence of a visit.

Unknown gravestone at Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Photo courtesy of Laura Shamas
Unknown gravestone at Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Photo courtesy of Laura Shamas

Throughout my Undisciplined research, various stories and themes intersected and echoed each other; following one thread often led to another similar or tangential strand. For example, several of the Cante Sica interviewees—including Anne Hamilton, Gilbert Mojado, Jane Mojado, Arlene Lacy, and Evelyn Martin—attended Sherman Indian High School in California. That led me to examine tests and essays in the Autry archives written by Sherman students. One paper, “How to Be a Matron,” connected me back to the Cante Sica interview of Anne Begay, who describes residential home matrons as disciplinarians but also as occasional allies. The subject of residential matrons also connects to Eugene Herrod’s boarding school story. Herrod reflects on numerous unhappy memories at Carter Seminary, in Ardmore, Oklahoma, including various encounters with authoritarian matrons. I was thus able to trace the subject of “matrons” through several different schools and individual accounts.

One fascinating pamphlet I viewed was from the Chilocco Indian Agricultural School in northeastern Oklahoma. It was a beautifully crafted brochure, created and printed by the students. Near the end of it, however, I found two editorial mistakes. One involved an “F” replacing the “E” in the word “REPORT” (it read “RFPORT”); the second was an inverted masthead at the top of a page. Because the rest of the brochure was so impeccably professional in appearance, I began to consider whether these “mistakes” had actually been intentional. Did the student proofreader make an error, or was it a deliberate statement, a way to subtly subvert the brochure? There’s probably no way to prove whether it was deliberate or just a couple of simple mistakes, but it’s interesting to consider various possibilities, scenarios, and intentions.

Booklet, Chilocco: School of Opportunity for Indian Youth, 1933, detail from page 46. Chilocco, Oklahoma: Indian Print Shop. Autry Library, Autry National Center; E97.6.C4 C45 1933
Booklet, Chilocco: School of Opportunity for Indian Youth, 1933, detail from page 46. Chilocco, Oklahoma: Indian Print Shop. Autry Library, Autry National Center; E97.6.C4 C45 1933
Silhouette cutout by Hopi primary schoolchildren in Miss Elizabeth C. Stanley’s classroom, Oraibi, Arizona, 1906. Braun Research Library Collection, Autry National Center; PORT.71
Silhouette cutout by Hopi primary schoolchildren in Miss Elizabeth C. Stanley’s classroom, Oraibi, Arizona, 1906. Braun Research Library Collection, Autry National Center; PORT.71

Another recurring theme I came across in my research was running away from school. The act of running away can be seen as a means by which students reclaimed their authenticity, resisted assimilation, and returned to family and cultural traditions. Three Cante Sica visual histories had specific and compelling stories of running away: Eugene Herrod, Cleno Jefferson, and Ron Sparks. And in the Autry collections, I began to see images of runners, such as paper cutouts done by Hopi students in 1906.

Finally, there’s a striking image in the Autry collection that, for me, resonates as a superb depiction of Native boarding school memories, with its complicated composition of shadow and light: a 2006 photograph by Isabel Avila titled Dilapidated Boys School, Pawnee Industrial Boarding School, Oklahoma.

Dilapidated Boys Dormitory, Pawnee Industrial Boarding School, Oklahoma, 2006. Photo by Isabel Avila. Donated by Andrew Schwartz. Autry National Center; 2010.64.1.
Dilapidated Boys Dormitory, Pawnee Industrial Boarding School, Oklahoma, 2006. Photo by Isabel Avila. Donated by Andrew Schwartz. Autry National Center; 2010.64.1.

Viewing the remarkable visual histories from The Cante Sica Foundation and researching Indian boarding school material in the Libraries and Archives of the Autry has led me to reflect further on the fluidity of memory. Memory is “re-collection.” Memory centers on the experiences, sensations, feelings, and images that stick with us, that we can’t shake, or that we treasure. Through memory we carry personal “collections” that inform our individual and collective identities. We “re-member,” “re-call,” “re-collect.” There is implication of having done something before and, at the same time, an implied action of doing it again later, if only in the mind’s eye. Memory, I’ve learned, is related not only to the past but equally to the present and the future.

We invite you to send your thoughts and comments to the Autry via Facebook and Twitter, or by e-mailing David Burton at dburton@theautry.org.

Thanksgiving at FSCW

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Schedule of events during Thanksgiving week (1941)

FSU’s campus during Thanksgiving is usually pretty quiet – students and staff are visiting their families over the break, or maybe traveling for the annual FSU vs. UF game, or others might be holed up in their dorm room and getting an early start on studying for finals. However, at FSCW, Thanksgiving week was bustling with events, which included presentations, band drills, a dance, and culminated with Florida State’s original rivalry – the annual Odd-Even basketball game. Festivities surrounding Thanksgiving became so enormously popular that college officials designated the entire week as Homecoming in 1926.

evens001
Programs from Even Demonstrations
odds001
Programs from Odd Demonstrations

The first event, a tradition that started in 1913, was the Color Rush. At the beginning of the week, selected students would race around the school and “capture” buildings by affixing ribbons in their class colors to the highest point (and later on, the front doors, due to safety concerns). Odd class colors were red, white, and purple, and the Even classes adopted green and gold.

The fountain at Westcott was designated “Forever Odd,” because it was gift from the 1915 and 1917 classes. Similarly, the entrance arch was declared “Forever Even,” and was gifted by the classes of 1916 and 1918. The Color Rush began at the morning bell, and traditionally Dr. Ralph Bellamy would start the race not with a whistle, but his shotgun – ready, set, BOOM!

even_demonstration
Three Women in Baby Costumes (Even Demonstrations) (Betty and Katharine Autrey Collection, 1932)
odd_demonstration
Odd Demonstration (Heritage Protocol General Photograph Collection, circa 1926-1927)

Many of the events revolved around the intense rivalry between the Odds and Evens, the groupings of the odd and even graduating classes. Each side developed their own songs, cheers, and even had their own honorary societies – Spirogira (Odd) and Esteren (Even). Elaborate student productions, called demonstrations, were held by each group, complete with costumes, musical numbers, and dancing.

Odd-Even Game (Thanksgiving) (Elizabeth and Katharine Autrey Collection, 1930)
Odd-Even Game (Thanksgiving) (Elizabeth and Katharine Autrey Collection, 1930)

Nothing was more popular than the Odds vs. Evens basketball game. This event, one of the few times that women at the school could participate in athletic competition (as FSCW officials did not think competitive sports were ladylike), became so popular that in 1924 Katherine Montgomery added a volleyball game to the day’s activities. Thanksgiving activities culminated with a dinner on Thursday night. Admission to the dinner cost about $1 for students, and was an elaborate feast that was enjoyed by all.

Various Thanksgiving Week programs
Various Thanksgiving Week programs (circa 1930-1941)

To see more photographs, ephemera, and artifacts related to the history of Florida State, check out the FSU Heritage Protocol Digital Collections or like the Heritage Protocol Facebook page.

We here at FSU Special Collections & Archives wish everyone a safe and happy Thanksgiving holiday. We will be closed Thursday, November 27 and Friday, November 28. We resume our normal operating hours on December 1.

Being Human Festival Part 1: Lantern slide display at the Ashmolean

Last week we were able to show off some of the beautiful lantern slide images digitized by the HEIR project. The ‘Being Human: Festival of the Humanities‘ was running all week, and as part of the celebrations we wanted to allow the public to see a sample of our Victorian and Edwardian photographs, featuring images from collections at the Institute of Archaeology, Harris Manchester College, and the Department for the History of Art.

We particularly wanted to be able to project these evocative photographs onto as large a space as possible, so that they would have maximum impact. We wanted the people in the pictures to be near life-sized, so that modern viewers could really have the sense of being part of the picture: part of the past in the present.

The Ashmolean Museum provided a wonderful space for us in the atrium. Setting up was simple, with the help of Lucie from the Ashmolean Public Engagement team:

setting up 1

Checking the images:

setting up 2

Putting up our information board with QR code link to the image catalogue on our blog:

info board ashmus

We had good feedback from the display: thanks to everyone who let us know how much they enjoyed the image sequence.

Sally

Military Pension Files: Frakturs

Did you know that military pension files may contain valuable details about family history? While military veterans who applied for benefits had to provide evidence of service, widows or heirs had to provide evidence of their relationship to soldiers. As a result, some military pension files in the National Archives contain very interesting, and sometimes surprising items.

For example, this beautiful Fraktur illustrating a family record was found within the file documenting the military service of Peter Hunt, who served during the American Revolutionary War.

Fraktur, Peter Hunt, Connecticut and New York
From the Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Application File of Peter Hunt.
National Archives Identifier 300092

 

We know from his pension application that Peter Hunt was born on Sept 28, 1757, in Dover, Dutchess County, New York. He married Hannah Benson on September 15, 1779, in Dutchess County.

On October 8, 1832, Peter Hunt made an application for pension while a resident of Kortright, Delaware County, New York, and was issued pension in 1833. According to Peter’s declaration to obtain pension, he enlisted in the United States Army in 1776 as a private commanded by Captain Childs and served in his Company of Infantry. Soon after, he enlisted into a Company of Artillery commanded by Capt. Andrew Moody in a regiment of the New York Continental line.

Peter first enlisted as volunteer in the militia in 1775 … [ Read all ]

Conoce que utilizan los timadores por Internet

Los 10 timos más frecuentes en Internet
http://www.diariodemallorca.es/ 25/11/2014

Internet sigue siendo el campo de acción favorito de estafadores y timadores profesionales, cuyo objetivo es aprovecharse del usuario más incauto. Nadie está libre de caer en una oferta de trabajo falsa, de blanquear dinero sin saberlo o de sufrir una inesperada fuga de capital de tu cuenta bancaria. Además, el uso masivo de aplicaciones tan extendidas como WhatsApp ha dado lugar a nuevas formas de engaño. Conviene, por tanto, estar atento a estos timos que circulan por la Red y que a continuación te pasamos a detallar para que los conozcas y evites sustos.

Falsas ofertas de trabajo

La escasez de puestos de trabajo unido a la enorme demanda de empleo ha dado lugar a la aparición de ofertas de trabajo fraudulentas.Se trata de anuncios que ofrecen un jugoso empleo a cambio de adelantar una cantidad determinada de dinero para gastos administrativos, envío de documentación o para cursos de formación antes de incorporarse al inexistente trabajo. El consejo: desconfiar si tenemos que llamar a un número de tarificación adicional (los que comienzan por 800 ó 900) o enviar un SMS.

‘Phishing’

Uno de los timos más habituales y conocidos.Los bancos no se cansan de alertar de esta estafa que busca conseguir los datos de la cuenta del usuario y las claves secretas de sus tarjetas de crédito mediante el envío de un correo electrónico que suplanta la imagen de una empresa o entidad bancaria. De esta forma, los estafadores tratan de hacer creer que el ‘mail’ procede del banco oficial del internauta para que caiga en el engaño. El ‘phishing’ ha dado lugar además a otra actividad fraudulenta que consiste en reclutar a teletrabajadores por medio de correos electrónicos o chats que, sin saberlo, blanquean dineroobtenido a través de esta estafa. El consejo: recuerda que las entidades bancarias jamás envían correos electrónicos solicitando las claves de acceso de sus clientes.

‘Pharming’

La evolución del ‘Phishing’. Los ciberdelincuentes redirigen a los usuarios a una web fraudulenta que imita a la de su entidad bancaria para robarles sus claves. El consejo: comprobar que cuando entramos a la web de nuestro banco aparece el candado de seguridad y que la dirección comienza por https://.

Timos por WhatsApp

El éxito de la aplicación móvil de mensajería instantánea ha propiciado la aparición de nuevas formas de fraude. Así, la introducción del polémico ‘check azul’ dio lugar a un timo a través de Twitter: se ofrecía la posibilidad de desactivar esta funcionalidad introduciendo nuestro número de teléfono. Era una forma de introducir ‘malware’ en nuestro terminal y cobrarnos tarifas por servicios no realizados. La organización de consumidores FACUA alertó también de un SMS enviado de forma masiva y que pedía ponerse en contacto con nosotros a través de WhatsApp. Si contestábamos, nos cargaban un elevado importe en la factura, ya que se trataba de una numeración SMS Premium y no de un móvil convencional. El consejo: bloquear en WhatsApp los mensajes que nos lleguen de números desconocidos.

Las cartas nigerianas

Muy similar al conocido como “timo de la estampita”, tiene como víctimas a personas con alto poder adquisitivo. Consiste en el envío masivo de un correo electrónico que trata de persuadir a la víctima para que deposite una elevada cantidad de dinero en una cuenta para desbloquear una fortuna que se encuentra en un banco de un país africano. El consejo: nunca contestar a este tipo de cartas ni proporcionar los datos de nuestra cuenta.

Fraude en compraventas o alquileres

Los chollos que no lo son tanto abundan en la Red. Así, un timo muy frecuente es el del coche de segunda mano a un precio irresistible. Nos piden adelantar el dinero y se comprometen a enviarnos hasta nuestro domicilio un vehículo que nunca llegará. En verano es también muy habitual el engaño del apartamento en alquiler inexistente. Los interesados depositan un dinero que no recuperarán para disfrutar de una casa de veraneo ‘fantasma’. El consejo: nunca dar dinero por adelantado sin una garantía.

Multas por descargas ilegales

Uno de los engaños más recientes. Llega a nuestro buzón de correo un ‘mail’, supuestamente remitido por la Policía, en el que se exige el pago de una multa por haber descargado de forma ilegalcontenido protegido por derechos de autor o haber accedido a contenido pornográfico. Este correo incluye un virus que bloquea el equipo. El consejo: la policía nunca solicita el pago de multas por Internet.

Premios falsos de lotería

Un correo electrónico nos anuncia que hemos sido agraciados con un premio en un sorteo promocional de una lotería extranjera. En la notificación se indica que, para cobrar el premio, debemos rellenar y enviar un formulario que viene adjunto al ‘mail’ y en el que se nos piden nuestros datos personales y bancarios. La estafa se consuma si los ciberdelincuentes logran que la víctima deposite el dinero que reclaman para cubrir determinados gastos (tasas, impuestos, comisiones bancarias, etc.) antes de poder cobrar el premio. El consejo: no existen sorteos gratuitos de lotería. La lotería nunca toca si no se juega.

Anuncios engañosos

En páginas de descargas es habitual encontrarnos con ‘banners’ publicitarios con una oferta interesante, dirigidos a personas poco familiarizas con la Red. Si hacemos ‘clic’ en el ‘banner’ nos solicitarán que introduzcamos el número de nuestro móvil para enviarnos un pin que active la descarga. Sin embargo, lo que hacemos es suscribirnos a un servicio de descargas ‘premium’ para móvil que disparará nuestra factura. El consejo: nunca dar nuestro número de móvil cuando se nos solicite para realizar una descarga en páginas que no sean de confianza.

Fraudes con tarjetas de crédito

Los estafadores crean una web de productos muy solicitados (móviles, ropa de marca, camisetas deportivas…) a precios muy inferiores a los reales. En este caso pueden pasar dos cosas: que paguemos el artículo y que nunca lo recibamos o bien que nos roben los datos de nuestra tarjeta de crédito para hacer compras en nuestro nombre. El consejo: desconfiar siempre de productos caros a precios muy bajos.

Localizados documentos de gran valor histórico robados a diversos archivos españoles

Recuperan en un mercadillo 28 documentos históricos de la Región de gran valor
http://elpajarito.es/ 25/11/2014
Agentes de la Guardia Civil han localizado en un puesto de venta ambulante de antigüedades un total de 28 documentos de incalculable valor, datados entre los años 1284 y 1779 que pertenecen al Archivo de la Catedral de Murcia , al Monasterio de Santa Clara la Real de Murcia y al Archivo del Obispado de Cartagena. Los investigadores constataron que tras este movimiento mercantil de originales únicos no destinados a su compra-venta se hallaba una persona que regenta un puesto ambulante de venta de antigüedades en la capital murciana.


Especialistas en Patrimonio Histórico de la Guardia Civil iniciaron en marzo la investigación “Files” dirigida a la localización de un documento de gran valor histórico que, al parecer, había sido puesto a la venta por un particular. Las pesquisas practicadas sobre la posible comercialización de este primer documento ha supuesto la localización de 28 de valor incalculable y pertenecientes al Archivo de la Catedral de Murcia , al Monasterio de Santa Clara la Real de Murcia y al Archivo del Obispado de Cartagena. “Los documentos, de valor económico incalculable, son originales únicos que no pueden ser destinados a su compra-venta y que poseen, además, un valor cultural e histórico incuestionable”, añade la fuente.

Entre los documentos destaca el privilegio rodado otorgado por el Rey Sancho IV concediendo a las monjas Clarisas del Monasterio de Santa Clara en el año 1284, un texto de cuya existencia sólo se conocía por traslados posteriores. Actualmente se conservan únicamente diecinueve documentos de este tipo, pero ninguno otorgado por este monarca.

Los documentos localizados han sido entregados a las entidades a las que pertenecen. La operación ha sido desarrollada por agentes de la Unidad Orgánica de Policía Judicial de Murcia , especializados en Patrimonio Histórico, en colaboración con personal del Archivo General de la Región de Murcia.

La operación ‘Files’ se ha saldado con la localización de documentos considerados patrimonio documental de la Región de Murcia , al hallarse amparados en la Ley 16/1985, de 25 de junio, del Patrimonio Histórico Español, y en la Ley 6/1990, de 11 de abril, de Archivos y Patrimonio Documental de la Región de Murcia.

La operación está enmarcada en el Plan para la defensa del Patrimonio Histórico Español, puesta en marcha por la Guardia Civil y que ha llevado consigo la realización de dispositivos específicos de servicio al objeto de incrementar la seguridad del Patrimonio Histórico Español y reducir la actividad delictiva en este sector.
DOCUMENTOS LOCALIZADOS

– El privilegio rodado otorgado por el Rey Sancho IV concediendo a las monjas Clarisas el Monasterio de Santa Clara en el año 1284; la existencia de este documento solo se conocía por traslados posteriores. Actualmente solo se conservan diecinueve documentos de este tipo, pero ninguno otorgado por este monarca.

– Una carta de confirmación que Alfonso XI concede en el año 1325 del privilegio otorgado por sus antecesores al Monasterio de Santa Clara de Murcia para la compra de tierras.

– Los autos otorgando un traslado autorizado de una sentencia pronunciada por dos jueces árbitros en el pleito entre el obispo, deán y cabildo de la iglesia de Cartagena y el comendador de Ricote por los límites de los términos entre Alguazas y Ricote.

– Los 22 pergaminos de Santa Clara que completan el escaso fondo documental que se conserva sobre el origen y desarrollo del Monasterio. La información que contienen resulta transcendente hasta el punto de que sin ellos no se puede entender en su integridad la historia del edificio, de la institución y de su comunidad religiosa, tan arraigadas en el ámbito territorial y tan importantes en el devenir histórico de la Región; de ellos destacan los distintos privilegios reales y bulas pontificias.


“No puede existir rendición de cuentas y transparencia, sin una adecuada gestión del manejo archivístico”

Foro sobre archivismo
http://yucatan.com.mx/ 25/11/2014

Reunión regional sobre gestión de actas históricas

“No puede existir rendición de cuentas y transparencia, sin una adecuada gestión del manejo archivístico”, reconoció Iván Batún Alpuche, director general del Archivo General del Estado de Yucatán (AGEY), ayer en rueda de prensa donde se dieron detalles del Foro de Consulta Región Golfo Sur “Hacia la construcción de una Ley General Archivos”.


Víctor Manuel May Vera, consejero presidente del Inaip 

Se espera que en este evento participen alrededor de 300 personas de los estados de Tabasco, Campeche, Oaxaca, Quinta Roo, Veracruz, Chiapas y Yucatán.

El foro se llevará al cabo este jueves y viernes, en la sala Mayamax del Gran Museo del Mundo Maya. Es organizado por el Archivo General de la Nación en coordinación con el AGEY y el Instituto Estatal de Acceso a la Información Pública (Inaip).

Batún Alpuche indicó que el 7 de febrero pasado se elevó a rango constitucionl el derecho a la información pública y a la rendición de cuentas que tenemos todos los ciudadanos; por lo tanto en este decreto se ordena hacer tres leyes complementarias de manera general, determinantes en toda la nación: la ley que garantiza la transparencia y el derecho a la información, la ley de protección de datos personales y la ley general de archivos.

Objetivos

“El foro nacional es para detectar la problemática en materia de archivos, cuáles son las vertientes que hay que seguir en todo el país para poder crear una ley general que pueda poner a disposición y a pronta respuesta las solicitudes de la información que llegan del IFAI y el INAIP”, apuntó.

Mucha veces, agregó, se detecta que estas solicitudes vienen con las respuestas de que simplemente no se pude encontra la información, entonces la problemática es la gestión documental del manejo archivista. Por eso el AGN organiza foros a nivel nacional para combatir estos porblemas. “A nosotros (AGEY) nos determina la responsabildia de organizar el foro de la región golfo-sur que incluye 7 estados de la república : Tabasco, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas Quintana Roo, Campeche y Yucatán”.

Por su parte, el consejero presidente del Inaip, Víctor Manuel May Vera, subrayó en que este evento tiene el objetivo de analizar propuestas para garantizar la preservación del patrimonio documental, a fin de construir un sistema nacional articulado de rendición de cuentas y de mecanismos de coordinación entre los tres niveles de gobierno en materia archivística.

Las actividades serán gratuitas y se iniciarán este jueves, a las 8:30 de la mañana, con el registro de los participantes y concluirán el viernes, a las 14 horas, con la lectura de las relatorías.- Abraham Bote Tun

De un vistazo

Edición El Foro de Consulta Región Golfo Sur “Hacia la construcción de una Ley General Archivos” es el sexto que se realiza en el país.

Temática

Entre los temas que se discutirán se encuentran “El proceso hacia la construcción de la Ley General de Archivos”, “Hacia un sistema nacional de archivos y rendición de cuentas”, “El papel rector del AGN, los sistemas estatales y municipales, a la luz de las recientes reformas constitucionales”, “Principios rectores y bases para la organización de archivos, la nueva cultura de archivística en México: hacia una normalización archivística”, y “Los archivos y las tecnologías de la información”.

Handbrake 0.10: Convertidor de vídeo y archivos multimedia

Convierte cualquier vídeo o archivo multimedia con Handbrake 0.10
http://www.omicrono.com/ 25/11/2014

handbrake-1


Codificar vídeo puede ser mas difícil de lo que pensamos si no contamos con las herramientas adecuadas, y en ese aspecto Handbrake se ha convertido en una gran alternativa, y lo mejor de todo es que lo ha conseguido sin abandonar su compromiso con el software libre. Disponible para Windows, Mac y Linux, el reciente lanzamiento de la versión 0.10 es una buena excusa para repasar sus características y ver de qué es capaz. Handbrake es un transcodificador capaz de trabajar con todo tipo de formatos y códecs, además de procedencia.


Un programa imprescindible

Por ejemplo, es capaz de obtener archivos multimedia de DVDs y Blu-Rays de vídeo, aunque por defecto solo podrá hacerlo si estos no tienen protección; pero si instalamos por nuestra cuenta las dependencias necesarias (como libdvdcss en el caso de los DVDs), no tendrá ningún problema en detectar y extraer el contenido. Este contenido luego puede convertirse a otros formatos mas fáciles de usar, como archivos MP4 y MKV, así como usar diferentes códecs dependiendo del medio que los vaya a reproducir, como H.264 o MP3 y FLAC; con la versión 0.10 a la lista se añaden H.265 y VP8, dos códecs con poco tiempo a sus espaldas pero que ya apuntan a convertirse en el estándar entre los aficionados.


handbrake-2

Si no estamos muy seguros de lo que estamos haciendo, siempre podemos elegir una de las configuraciones por defecto incluidas, para todo tipo de dispositivos como consolas de videojuegos, smartphones o tablets y Handbrake se encargará de elegir el códec, el formato y la calidad correcta; con la nueva versión también se añade una pre-configuración para Windows Phone. En lo que respecta al soporte de hardware, si tenemos una tarjeta gráfica Nvidia o AMD también se añade soporte de OpenCL para escalar: por contra si usamos Intel se añade compatibilidad con QuickSync para codificar y descodificar.

Handbrake 0.10 ya está disponible para Windows, Mac y Linux.


Descarga Handbrake 0.10 para Windows 64 bits.

Descarga Handbrake 0.10 para Windows 32 bits.

Descarga Handbrake 0.10 para Mac

Para instalar Handbrake en Ubuntu, solo hay que pegar estos comandos en una terminal para añadir repositorios e instalar el paquete necesario: 

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:stebbins/handbrake-releases

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install handbrake-gtk


Autor: Handbrake

Tips para reducir las imágenes Jpeg o Png conservando la calidad

Cómo reducir el peso de mis imágenes Jpeg o Png sin perder calidad
http://www.vinagreasesino.com/ 25/11/2014

Uno de los mayores problemas que suelen tener desarrolladores web o portales de noticias de Internet, se encuentra en el peso de las imágenes que utilizarán para cada uno de sus artículos o proyectos.


Es por tal motivo, que una gran necesidad puede llegar a plantearse a la hora de tratar de encontrar una herramienta adecuada que nos ayude a reducir el peso de la imagen original, a algo mucho más liviano pero, siempre manteniendo la calidad con la que cuenta la misma. En el presente artículo mencionaremos a dos interesantes aplicaciones web que provienen del mismo desarrollador, las cuales nos ayudarán a tratar de mantener la calidad al disminuir el peso con el que cuenten nuestras imágenes para procesar.


Procesar imágenes jpeg en una aplicación online

TinyJPG es la aplicación web que mencionaremos por el momento, la cual nos ofrece la posibilidad de poder reducir el peso con el que cuenten cualquier tipo de imágenes que necesitemos procesar. Lo único que tenemos que hacer, es abrir al explorador de archivos, seleccionar a la imagen (o algunas de ellas) y arrastrarlas hacia la interfaz que nos ofrece TinyJPG. Inmediatamente aparecerá un mensaje que nos sugerirá el ahorro del peso obtenido en la nueva imagen. Desde aquí mismo tendremos la posibilidad de descargarla al ordenador y hacer alguna pequeña comparativa entre ambas.

TinyPNG es la segunda aplicación web que hemos decidido mencionar, la cual pertenece al mismo desarrollador de la que mencionamos anteriormente. La interfaz de trabajo entre ambas aplicaciones online es muy similar, lo que quiere decir, que sólo debemos elegir a las imágenes respectivas desde el explorador de archivos y arrastrarlas hacia TinyPNG. La diferencia entre una y otra herramienta online se encuentra, en que esta última tiene la capacidad de respetar el nivel de transparencia con el que generalmente cuentan las imágenes PNG.

Ciberespionaje: Symantec descubre troyano "Regin" activo desde 2008 para robar información estatal

Descubren programa que permitió a gobiernos espiar en internet desde 2008
http://www.prensalibre.com/ 25/11/2014

El grupo informático Symantec anunció que descubrió un programa de espionaje furtivo, operativo desde el 2008, cuya complejidad técnica induce a pensar que su creación estuvo como mínimo supervisando los servicios de inteligencia de un Estado.


WASHINGTON DC.- El programa, bautizado “Regin”, es un troyano extremadamente sofisticado, del tipo “backdoor” (puerta falsa), que permite vigilar los objetivos elegidos con total discreción.


“Los equipos de Symantec detectaron brechas de seguridad comprobadas en 10 países, en primer lugar en Rusia, luego en Arabia Saudita, que concentran alrededor de la cuarta parte de las infecciones cada uno”, explicó a la AFP Candid Wueest, un investigador de la compañía de seguridad informática estadounidense.

Los otros países afectados son México, Irlanda, India, Afganistán, Irán, Bélgica, Austria y Pakistán.

También fueron infectadas compañías de telecomunicaciones, aparentemente para obtener acceso a llamadas enrutadas a través de su infraestructura, dijo el informe.

Además, Kaspersky añadió que Regin también parece haberse infiltrado en comunicaciones móviles a través de redes GSM.

“En el mundo de hoy, nos hemos vuelto demasiado dependientes de redes de celular que dependen fuertemente de viejos protocolos de comunicación”, explica Kaspersky.

El portal especializado The Intercept indicó este lunes que al parecer el “malware” está vinculado a la inteligencia británica y estadounidense, y que fue utilizado en los ataques a redes de gobiernos europeos y la red de telecomunicaciones de Bélgica.

El reporte, citando fuentes de la industria y analistas de malware, señaló que referencias de Regin aparecen en los documentos filtrados por el ex contratista de la agencia de inteligencia estadounidense (NSA, en inglés), Edward Snowden, sobre su programa de vigilancia.

Consultado sobre el reporte, el vocero de la NSA afirmó: “No haremos comentarios sobre una especulación”.

- Al acecho desde las sombras -

A la inversa de “Stuxnet”, que tenía por objetivo las centrifugadoras de enriquecimiento de uranio en Irán, el fin de “Regin” es recolectar diferentes tipos de datos en lugar de sabotear un sistema de control industrial.

“Regin” parece permitir a los atacantes realizar capturas de pantalla, tomar control del ratón, robar contraseñas, monitorear el tráfico y recuperar archivos borrados.

Su complejidad implica una fase de concepción que debió durar varios meses, o años incluso, y que exigió una inversión financiera importante.

“El tiempo y los recursos empleados indican que el responsable es un país”, asegura Candid Wueest.

Symantec dijo que algunos objetivos pudieron haber sido engañados para visitar versiones falsas de sitios web conocidos, con el fin de permitir que el malware se instale, y cita un caso que se originó a partir de Yahoo Instant Messenger.

Identificado por primera vez el año pasado por Symantec, “Regin” fue utilizado inicialmente entre 2008 y 2011, fecha en la que desapareció.

- Nuevas versiones de malware -

Una nueva versión de ese “malware” volvió en 2013 y sigue activa, y sin duda existen otras versiones y funcionalidades.

El 48% de las infecciones atañen a direcciones que pertenecen a proveedores de servicios de internet, pero los blancos eran realidad los clientes de esas compañías, e incluyen empresas, organizaciones gubernamentales e institutos de investigación.

La presencia de ‘Regin’ “confirmada en ámbitos como la hotelería y la aeronáutica pudo servir, por ejemplo, a sus instigadores para informarse sobre las idas y venidas de algunas personas”, afirma el experto de Symantec.

Estas informaciones llegan entre aguzadas preocupaciones por el ciberespionaje.

El pasado mes, dos equipos de investigadores de seguridad dijeron que los gobiernos ruso y chino están probablemente detrás del ciberespionaje generalizado que atacó objetivos en Estados Unidos y otros lugares del mundo.

Además, un equipo de investigadores liderado por la firma de seguridad Novetta Solutions dijo haber identificado a un grupo de piratas informáticos que supuestamente actuaba “en nombre del aparato de inteligencia del gobierno chino”.

De su lado, la compañía de seguridad Fire Eye indicó en un informe que un constante intento de piratear a contratistas de defensa estadounidenses, gobiernos de Europa del este y organizaciones europeas de seguridad está “probablemente patrocinado por el gobierno ruso”.

Autor: POR AGENCIA AFP / ESTADOS UNIDOS

Piano de "Casa Blanca" rematado en subasta

El piano de “Casablanca” rematado en 3,41 millones de dólares
http://www.eluniversal.com/ 24/11/2014

El instrumento fue la estrella de la subasta “There’s no place like Hollywood” (“No existe lugar como Hollywood”), que incluía más de 30 objetos utilizados en “Casablanca” (1942) y fue organizada el lunes en Manhattan por Bonhams y Turner Classics Movies.

imageRotate
El piano fue un protagonista esencial de la película, al dar escenas memorables (AP)


Nueva York.- El piano de la célebre película “Casablanca”, con Ingrid Bergman y Humphrey Bogart, fue subastado el lunes en Nueva York en 3,41 millones de dólares, anunció la casa de remates Bonhams.

El piano “estudio” de 58 teclas y color naranja con detalles arabescos de flores aparece en la escena de culto en la que Bergman pide al pianista Sam, interpretado por Dooley Wilson, que toque el tema “As Time Goes By” al llegar al “Rick’s Cafe”, el cabaret propiedad de su antiguo amor Bogart en la ciudad marroquí de Casablanca.

El instrumento fue la estrella de la subasta “There’s no place like Hollywood” (“No existe lugar como Hollywood”), que incluía más de 30 objetos utilizados en “Casablanca” (1942) y fue organizada el lunes en Manhattan por Bonhams y Turner Classics Movies.

La subasta del piano arrancó con un precio de base de 1,6 millones de dólares que en tres minutos de puja alcanzó los 2,9 millones, un monto que con el “premium” de impuestos llegó a los 3,413 millones finales.

Las puertas del “Rick’s Café”, donde Bergman pide a Bogart que ayude a su marido a escapar hacia Estados Unidos, fueron vendidas a un precio de 115.000 dólares, por encima de la estimación de entre 75.000 y 100.000 dólares hecha por la casa de remate. Todos los lotes provenían de una colección privada.

Otro piano usado brevemente en la película había sido rematado en 2012 en 602.500 dólares.

“Casablanca”, que logró tres Óscar en 1943, figura entre los filmes estadounidenses más populares de todos los tiempos, según una lista establecida por el Instituto del Cine de ese país.

Gobierno colombiano no ofertó por Archivos de García Márquez, ¿no le interesan?.

Universidad de Texas adquiere el archivo personal de Gabriel García Márquez
http://www.ntn24.com/ 24/11/2014
Archivo Reuters

La Universidad de Texas en Austin, en el suroeste de Estados Unidos, adquirió los archivos personales del Nobel de Literatura colombiano Gabriel García Márquez, fallecido este año, informó el centro educativo este lunes.

“El Centro Harry Ransom, un museo y biblioteca para investigación en el área de humanidades en la Universidad de Texas en Austin, ha adquirido el archivo del autor Gabriel García Márquez (1927-2014), ganador del Premio Nobel de Literatura”, según un comunicado.

El archivo, que abarca más de medio siglo, incluye manuscritos originales de 10 libros, entre ellos la obra maestra del autor “Cien años de soledad” (1967).

Más de 2.000 correspondencias, incluyendo cartas de Graham Greene y Carlos Fuentes, borradores del discurso al aceptar el Premio Nobel en 1982, así como fotografías y recortes de periódicos que recopilan la carrera de García Márquez, completan la colección.

En el ajuar de posesiones del escritor adquiridas por la universidad destacan también máquinas de escribir Smith Corona y computadoras en las cuales escribió algunos de sus trabajos literarios más importantes.

El hijo del premio Nobel confirmó a medios colombianos que el país no ofertó por el material por lo que fue vendido a la reconocida universidad.

La Universidad de Texas, que cuenta con departamentos especializados en estudios latinoamericanos así como un área de preservación y estudio del proceso de escribir, “es el hogar natural para esta colección tan importante”, dijo su presidente Bill Powers en un comunicado.

La institución no precisó el monto por el cual fue adquirida esta colección.

El archivo García Márquez permanecerá en el Centro Harry Ransom al lado del trabajo de escritores notables del siglo XX, como el argentino Jorge Luis Borges, el estadounidense William Faulkner y el irlandés James Joyce, todos ellos influyentes en el trabajo del escritor colombiano.

García Márquez falleció en abril pasado en Ciudad de México, a los 87 años.

Colaboración AFP

Glamour Girls, Murder, and the Mayor

We mark the 50th anniversary of the passing of the 100th Mayor of New York City with a look at his 1948 lampooning by City Hall reporters.

The hijinks and revelry of the Inner Circle Club’s annual show in 1948, A Streetcar Framed O’Dwyer, gave little hint of the great scandal—and the enduring gangland mystery—that was soon to envelop its title character.

The “Inner Circle” is the fraternity of city hall reporters who famously gave us Rudy Giuliani in a dress. For over a hundred years now—their predecessor organization, “the Amen Corner,” dates back to 1898—they have put on an annual revue skewering the latest unfortunate in the mayor’s office, and other leading political figures. “A Streetcar” refers to A Streetcar Named Desire, the groundbreaking Tennessee Williams play headlined by Marlon Brando that was setting Broadway on fire at the time. O’Dwyer was Mayor William O’Dwyer, the 100th mayor in the city’s history, though as alluded to here he was too ill to attend the festivities, still recovering from what was thought to be a heart attack.

O’Dwyer (1890-1964) seemed to be a great American success story. Born in County Mayo, Ireland, arriving in the Bronx nearly penniless after dropping out of a seminary in Salamanca, in Spain, he worked as a grocery errand boy, a hod carrier on construction sites (including the Woolworth Building), a stoker of ship furnaces, and then as a beat cop along the Brooklyn waterfront. He went to law school at night to earn his degree, built a private practice, and—as the Inner Circle show mentions—served the public as a Kings County judge, and then Brooklyn district attorney.

As DA, he succeeded in sending no fewer than seven members of the notorious “Murder, Inc.” gang of mob assassins-for-hire up to “the Dance Hall,” the electric chair at Sing Sing, including Louis “Lepke” Buchalter—to this day, the only mob boss ever executed for his crimes in the United States. This success won him the nomination of the “regular Democratic party”—Tammany Hall—to run for mayor against incumbent Fiorello La Guardia in the 1941 race.

O’Dwyer lost narrowly. But during World War II, he was decorated for his outstanding work administering relief to occupied Italy, and returning to the city a hero, was elected mayor by a landslide in 1945, after “The Little Flower” chose not to run again.

 By 1948, “Bill-O,” as he was nicknamed, was still a highly popular mayor, despite the many municipal problems referred to in the show: postwar inflation, a severe housing shortage, a shortage of coal (caused in part by dockyard strikes in the winter of 1947-48), the forced neglect of the city’s infrastructure during the war years, and of course the usual scramble to balance the budget. O’Dwyer was generally credited with at least doing his best to ameliorate these problems, many of which were out of his control, and his efforts would land him on the cover of Time magazine on June 7, 1948, a few months after the show.

“New York,” Time would kvell, “is the biggest, richest city the world has ever seen. Its wealth is incalculable…It is the world’s greatest port, the world’s greatest tourist attraction, the world’s greatest manufacturing city and the world’s greatest marketplace…New York is the fountain-spout of U.S. culture, the intellectual gateway to England and Europe.” It was a city that “prizes confidence and rewards brilliance,” where mica in the concrete literally made the streets sparkle at night, and where the women “shop like stalking tigresses, dress like lady spies, and walk with a provocative air.”

La plus ça change…but this was hardly an exaggeration. New York in 1948 was at the zenith of what many regard as its golden age. It had emerged from World War II as the only great world city both unbloodied and unbowed. It had become, in a sense, the world’s political capital when the United Nations moved in, and was already the de facto world capital of art, architecture, literature, medical research, finance, advertising, philanthropy, and that befuddling new medium, television.

It was still the country’s—and the world’s—greatest manufacturing center, with over one million workers toiling in 40,000 factories. It was the capital of both retail and wholesale, where one-fifth of all of the nation’s wholesale transactions took place. Forty percent of everything imported to America came through its waterfront, and it housed the headquarters of 135 Fortune 500 companies.

It was also a city where every year many thousands of individuals with little but their hopes and dreams—displaced, black agricultural workers from the South; Puerto Ricans with little English looking for jobs; traumatized refugees from war-torn Europe—came to try to find a place for themselves. New Yorkers sympathized with Mayor O’Dwyer’s attempts to run this turbulent colossus, as well as with his health problems, and his anguish over the death in 1946 of his wife (and close political advisor) of 30 years, Catherine Whelan O’Dwyer, after a long battle with cancer and Parkinson’s disease.

Bill-O briefly announced that he would not run for re-election in 1949, then decided to do so after all. He again won easily, in a three-man race. By this time, too, he had re-married, to a society woman and the most sought-after fashion model in the country, Sloan Simpson. Sloan, 26 years his junior, added a splash of glamour to his administration, and was herself featured on the cover of Life magazine, in a 1950 spread—foreshadowing Jackie Kennedy—that showed her adding art and culture to Gracie Mansion.

Then, it all came crashing down. There had always been something that seemed faintly fraudulent, or contrived, about Bill O’Dwyer —and despite his bluff exterior, he felt overwhelmed by the job. Throughout his tenure, he made crucial transfers of power to unelected individuals, particularly the already powerful Robert Moses. These abdications of public authority would have dire results for the city over the long run.

Only eight months into his second term, O’Dwyer announced that he was resigning for reasons of health, and accepting a State Department offer to become ambassador to Mexico. The O”Dwyers were given a tickertape parade by a grateful city, and at first they thrived in Mexico City. Plunging into Mexican life and culture at all levels, they were well-liked in turn.

In 1951, though, Bill-O returned to New York to answer questions from “the Kefauver Committee,” a special Senate investigative committee headed by Sen. Estes Kefauver (D-TN), to root out the influence of organized crime in American life. It was the first government investigation ever broadcast on the new medium of television, and it held Americans—particularly New Yorkers, who owned far and away the largest number of television sets in the nation—spellbound. O’Dwyer, suffering from the flu and sweating profusely under the hot camera lights, came off as evasive and dissembling.

Worse still, he could not come up with persuasive answers for his wartime meetings with Frank Costello, a leading mob figure of the time, often called “the Prime Minister of the Underworld.” The mafia, enriched by its immense Prohibition earnings, had taken a prominent role in New York politics by this time, particularly in Tammany Hall, which still controlled the local Democratic Party; and it seems likely that O’Dwyer was soliciting Costello’s support for mayor.

Still worse allegations would soon tarnish the former mayor’s reputation, especially during his time as district attorney of Brooklyn. The key witness who had helped send so many Murder, Inc., figures to their deaths was their former colleague, Abe “Kid Twist” Reles, who was thought to have killed at least 60 individuals himself, at the behest of various mob bosses. Turned “squealer” to save himself, Reles was carefully sequestered away behind a bolted steel door, in a wing of Coney Island’s Half Moon Hotel, along with three other mob snitches and a 17-man, ’round-the-clock police guard. (This bastion was immediately dubbed “Rats’ Suite” by reporters.)

 Despite such precautions, Reles ended up plunging out of a ninth-story window at the Half Moon, sometime in the early morning hours of November 12, 1941. Attempts to make this seem like an escape attempt or some sort of “prank” appeared obviously faked, but with America’s abrupt entrance into the war a few weeks later the case remained unresolved.

Later evidence, though, came to closely link William O’Dwyer with William McCormack (1890-1965), a ruthless businessman who had long held almost complete control over New York Harbor. McCormack, a son of “famine Irish” immigrants, had worked his way up from a humble dock carter to the “Mr. Big” of the waterfront. Keeping a low profile, he wielded his absolute power over the docks through the corrupt International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA), and particularly the mob muscle behind this union. While the testimony of Reles had solved dozens of mob killings all over the country, he was due next to testify against Albert Anastasia, the vicious gangster in charge of enforcing McCormack’s will on the docks—a struggle depicted in the film On the Waterfront (1954), also starring Marlon Brando.

McCormack managed to evade indictment by the Waterfront Crime Commission, despite a Pulitzer-Prize winning series about the rackets there by the New York Sun, as well as other exposés. Fearing that he would not be as fortunate, O’Dwyer stayed on in Mexico City for years after his ambassadorship ended. He was divorced by Sloan Simpson, who would become entangled in a number of scandalous affairs and—perhaps more scandalously—actually learned how to bullfight in full matador regalia, her lessons detailed in a smirking Collier’s magazine.

Bill-O did not return to New York until 1960. Now 70 years old and again largely penniless, he was dependent upon the aid of his much younger brother, Paul O’Dwyer, the longtime liberal icon of city politics, who would defend his older brother’s reputation for the rest of his life. The details of just who killed Abe Reles—and on whose orders—remain the greatest unsolved mystery in mob history.

The Inner Circle show recorded above only foreshadows these tumultuous events in occasional throwaway lines. The songs are largely satirical adaptations of popular show tunes of the time, or traditional New York favorites. The acting, at that time, was still all done by the reporters themselves, whether in drag, “native” dress, or anything else. (NB: This is a long show, so we have included the timings of each segment in square brackets. See the complete listing here.)

The opening act’s title, “The First Fifty Years are the Hardest,” and its first number, “In Old New York” [5:01] ,refer to the fact that 1948 marked the 50th anniversary of New York’s “consolidation” into one great city. Prior to 1898 New York City consisted of just Manhattan and parts of the Bronx. On January 1, 1898, they were joined by the city of Brooklyn, by what would become the borough of Queens, and by Staten Island—the last, typically, unmentioned in the song.

The song includes many references to contemporary fads, events, and minor scandals. The “orange drink” mentioned refers to the proliferation of “tropical drinks,” the health craze of the time that gave us all those “Gray’s Papaya” stands. The “ALP,” is the “American Labor Party,” a city third-party at the time, started by unions and liberals disgusted by Tammany Hall’s influence over local Democrats. And the mention of “cops making book” refers to the then recent discovery that the police were wire-tapping phones in a popular bar near Ebbets Field…not to catch illegal bookmakers, but to ensure they were making their full pay-offs to the cops. Ironically, this humorous scandal would eventually burgeon into something much bigger, producing witnesses that would help bring down the O’Dwyer administration.

Grover Whalen “appears” in the next skit [8:31]. Whalen was a former Tammany police commissioner and the city’s longtime “official greeter.” Always dapper, with a small moustache and a fresh carnation in his lapel, Whalen had presided over the enthralling 1939-40 World’s Fair, and would now coordinate celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the five-borough city. This would culminate in a grand parade down Fifth Avenue…one that almost became a disaster when horses pulling an antique stagecoach bearing Mayor O’Dwyer and other dignitaries bolted away from their driver, nearly running down other marchers and wrecking the coach before an alert policeman managed to restrain the animals.

The next song, “Nearly” [11:31], includes several other topical subjects. It first alludes to the imminent doubling of the nickel subway fare, which had been five cents since the underground’s opening in 1904. (The subway, which had reached an all-time record of over 2 billion rides in 1947, would not introduce tokens until 1953.) It also mentions “Jersey Joe” Walcott, a veteran heavyweight from Merchantville, New Jersey who had just lost a split decision to champ Joe Louis that many observers felt he deserved to win. (Walcott would eventually win the title, at the age of 37, in 1951.) The World Series of 1947 had been one of the most exciting and closely fought of all time, with the Yankees (of course) prevailing over Jackie Robinson’s Brooklyn Dodgers. (Curiously, in reviewing all the events of 1947, Robinson’s breaking of the color line doesn’t seem to have interested the reporters.) Gypsy Rose Lee was the famous, and famously erudite, stripper of the time. And the coal shortage, caused in part by waterfront strikes, would in retrospect be seen as one more sign of William McCormack flexing his muscles.

“Long Island’s Winter Wonderland,” sung to the 1934 hit “Walking in a Winter Wonderland,” refers to a blizzard that left the perpetual New York punching bag, the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR)—then still a privately owned subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad—all but incapacitated, and thousands of commuters stranded or even forced to sleep overnight in the stalled trains (“I’ve Been Sleeping on the Railroad”). The surprise “Great Blizzard of 1947” began Christmas night and dropped more than two feet of snow on Central Park over the next 24 hours. It caused a total of 77 deaths throughout the Northeast, and brought the metropolitan area to a standstill. It also provoked another New York perennial, as you can hear: bitter complaints over unshoveled streets. The line “ ’88 was just a flurry,” refers to the even more disruptive “Great Blizzard of 1888,” which killed some 400 people, including 200 in New York City alone.

Act III of the show, “The Iron Curtain” [34:00], moves into the emerging presidential politics of the 1948 election. The skit includes “Red Mike” Quill, the pugnacious head of the city’s Transit Workers’ Union (TWU), and a former city councilman for the American Labor Party (ALP). The Inner Circle expected him to have the TWU back a third-party effort in 1948, to be headed by Henry “Hank” Wallace.

Wallace, a brilliant agronomist and secretary of agriculture under President Franklin Roosevelt, had been dumped as Roosevelt’s vice-president in 1944 because of his far-left leanings and replaced by Harry Truman. After serving for a time as Truman’s secretary of commerce, Wallace had broken with the administration over the Cold War, and in the 1948 election would in fact try to lead the more liberal factions of the Democratic Party into his new Progressive party. Wallace’s vice-presidential nominee would be Glen Taylor (D-ID), the eccentric, guitar-strumming Senator known as “The Singing Cowboy,” who famously rode his horse up the Capitol steps when he first arrived in Washington in 1944.

Wallace was thought to have a chance to draw millions of liberal votes away from President Truman (sneered at earlier in the show as “the Alf Landon of the Democratic party,” Landon having lost all but two states as the Republicans’ presidential candidate in 1936). This was not an unfounded prediction: Leo Isacson, also “appearing” here, was about to score an upset win in a special congressional election in the Bronx as an ALP candidate and Wallace supporter, joining the famous East Harlem radical Vito Marcantonio in Congress. The humorous skit includes both congressmen asking banker J.P. Morgan for funds, and setting up shop across from the staunchly pro-establishment Union League Club.

But much like the Inner Circle, most liberals considered Wallace to be—albeit unwittingly—a dupe of the Soviet Union and Josef Stalin, presented here (in a singing role) as his “boss” [36:54]. Quill would break with his old Communist associates, and all the major unions and liberal organizations would rally around Truman over Wallace, who would receive just 2.37 percent of the popular vote—about 1.1 million votes in all, two-thirds of them from New York—and no electoral votes. Wallace would soon renounce his Cold War stance, and apologize to Truman for his run.

Making a cameo appearance here is the (long deceased) Tammany mayor, Robert Van Wyck [40:26], the first to preside over greater New York. (He was defeated for re-election after taking a massive stock payoff from an ice company.) On hand as well are some of New York’s borough leaders from 1948, including Ed Flynn, the liberal, well-read “Boss of the Bronx,” who had become a power in the national Democratic party; John Cashmore, Brooklyn Borough President, whose ineptitude would eventually aid the Dodgers in slipping out of town; and James J. Lyons, the Bronx Borough President, whose backing would prove crucial to Moses’ efforts to build the Cross Bronx Expressway.

“Mink Me Tonight” [46:55] refers to one of the few “non-scandals” of the time, or rather one created by much of the New York press, which fecklessly reported the story of an erroneous state investigation claiming that a woman with major assets, including a mink coat, and running a bookie operation out of a hotel, had been granted monthly welfare checks. Both The New Yorker and the old daily PM—which was distinguished, and ultimately doomed, for its refusal to accept ads, in order to maintain its editorial independence—had thoroughly debunked the story, proving that the woman no longer had any assets or income, no longer lived in a hotel, and was in fact a destitute single mother with one daughter. The mink in question was a crumbling, “mangy” garment officially estimated by a fur dealer to have a value of $300.

None of these facts, of course, kept most of the New York press from cheerfully asserting here that welfare recipients were all cheating the system—nor would further, bogus reports ever deter it in the years to come. The only redeeming aspect to this number was its tune, lifted from the lovely old waltz “Meet Me Tonight in Dreamland,” written in 1903 to commemorate the opening of the Dreamland amusement park in Coney Island.

“Bungle, Bungle” [49:33] is adapted from the 1947 Broadway hit “Civilization (Bongo, Bongo, Bongo),” from the musical Angel in the Wings—notable mostly because it was introduced by the late, great Elaine Stritch, making her first big splash on the Great White Way. The various Tammany “braves” are probably dressed as Indians—their own, constant conceit; Tammany was named for a semi-mythical Indian chief, “St. Tammamend”—or perhaps African tribesmen. They are determined to hunt the Republican elephant in the upcoming presidential election, although they are convinced their “Head cheese,” Harry Truman, is a “lightweight.” They worry over more defections from the Democratic party by the “Dixiecrats”—the States’ Rights Democratic Party—which would indeed secede from the Democrats’ national party, and win over 1.1 million votes, 2.4 percent of the vote, and 39 electoral votes behind presidential candidate Strom Thurmond.

The rest of the show includes various unhappy Democrats, including Wallace, former secretary of the interior Harold Ickes, and James Petrillo [59:47]. Petrillo was the publicity-hungry head of the American Federation of Musicians who had instated a recording ban that would last almost the entire year. He was also a sometimes accompanist to both President Truman, who played piano, and his daughter, Margaret Truman, whose nascent singing career would involve the president in any number of scraps. Truman seems to call to Petrillo for help. At the same time, he goes through the leading contenders for the Republican nomination—New York governor Thomas Dewey, former Minnesota governor Harold Stassen, General Douglas MacArthur, California governor and future Chief Justice Earl Warren, and Republican Speaker of the House Joseph Martin (R-MA). He hopes they will instead nominate Robert Taft, the prominent conservative senator from Ohio, who was considered too far to the right to win.

There are jokes about what a mistake it was for Peter Minuit to—legendarily—buy Manhattan from the Indians for $24, and references to meat shortages. There is a rather ugly jest suggesting that Americans are going hungry because their food is being shipped to Europeans under the Marshall Plan, and another, even uglier jibe at Truman, during a Jefferson-Jackson Day Dinner—a big Democratic gathering at the time—paying worshipful reverence to “Washington—Booker T. Washington” as the founder of his country. The reference to Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), the former slave who had worked his way up to become a university president and leading advocate for civil rights, is an echo of Dixiecrat charges that the Truman administration’s cautious moves forward in civil rights was “pandering” to black Americans.

(Truman was perhaps fortunate in their restraint. Two years earlier, a similar “send-up” of Branch Rickey’s breaking the color line in white baseball by signing Jackie Robinson had triggered a full-out, black-face, minstrely “sketch” by New York’s sportswriters in a similar revue. Neither they, nor the Inner Circle, of course, included any black reporters in their organizations.)

Truman is seen as “going back to Missouri” with the help of the new chairman of the Democratic National Convention, his advisor, J. Howard McGrath, who is also satirized as an incompetent. His replacement is sure to be Thomas Dewey, the governor of New York, whose defeat by FDR in the 1944 election was attributed partly to his remarkable stiffness. But now, he sings, “I’ll be different…I’ll be human, not like I used to be” [1:22:56].

The skits are followed by set speeches from Vincent I. Impellitteri [1:26:44] and from Dewey [1:32:58], in which both men would demonstrate the limitations of their political abilities. Impellitteri, a Sicilian immigrant, had been picked to run for the old office of President of the City Council in 1945, though at the time he was only a clerk to a State Supreme Court justice and a former assistant district attorney in the Bronx. But with O’Dwyer running for mayor, and Lazarus Joseph, a Shomer Shabbos Jew from the Lower East Side, running for comptroller, this was Tammany’s idea of a perfectly balanced ticket: Irish-Italian-Jewish; Brooklyn-the Bronx-Manhattan.

As you can hear, Impellitteri was a less than dynamic speaker, but with O’Dwyer’s sudden resignation, he succeeded to the mayoralty under the city charter of the time. Running in a special election on the “Experience Party” line in 1950, he surprised everyone by winning in his own right, in another, three-man field. More scandals loomed, though, including the widely held belief that Impellitteri was a close associate of the Lucchese crime family, and in 1953 he was defeated for re-election in the Democratic primary by Robert F. Wagner. He went on to a long career on the criminal court bench.

Thomas Dewey’s ponderous speech on the Cold War—not to mention his rather spooky laugh—gives one a perspective into the chilly public persona that ultimately held back a supremely capable public servant. Bizarrely, Dewey here seems to imply that the United States is the only place where people could “poke fun at their government,” thereby ignoring most of Europe, Canada, and other democracies around the world.

A highly successful, three-term governor of New York, and a champion of civil liberties and racial equality, following his career as a gang-busting, public attorney, Dewey would win the Republican nomination again in 1948. Despite all the best prognostications of the assembled city hall reporters here, he lost the general election in a stunning upset—to Harry Truman, who somehow managed to survive the defection of both his party’s right and left wings.

“I know them all,” Truman liked to say about the press corps in general, “and there’s not a one of them has enough sense to pound sand down a rathole.”

L’incontro di Bologna organizzato dalla Associazione Orlando (Narrare e rappresentare una storia, femminismo e femministe in Italia negli anni Settanta…)

Molto, molto interessante. La mia non può essere una cronaca, e mi sono pentita di aver preso appunti così disordinati e sommari (cercavo di seguire il più possibile…). Possiamo solo affidarci alla registrazione puntualmente effettuata dal Serverdonne e sperare che … Continua a leggere

Merging Time returns to the City of Vancouver Archives’ gallery

The newest Merging Time exhibit is now on display in the City of Vancouver Archives’ gallery. Since its initial showing at the Archives three years ago, this annual photography exhibit has become an attraction for both historians and photographers alike. This year, the exhibit features 16 new digital interpretations of our scanned archival photographs.

The creators of this year’s Merging Time show: Langara’s Professional Photo-Imaging Class of 2015.

The creators of this year’s Merging Time show: Langara’s Professional Photo-Imaging Class of 2015.

Every year, students in Darren Bernaerdt’s Principles of Imaging Processing course (PHOTO 1248) are assigned to visit the Archives to find historical photographs of Vancouver. After determining the exact location and perspective of each selected photograph, they travel to the original site to replicate the photographs with a digital SLR camera. This year’s students chose a selection of street scenes of downtown Vancouver from the 1890s to 1940s.

Archival photograph selected by Michelle MacDonald for the Merging Time assignment. Granville Street looking north from Robson Street, 1900s. Reference code: AM54-S4-: Str P32.

Archival photograph selected by Michelle MacDonald for the Merging Time assignment. Granville Street looking north from Robson Street, 1900s. Reference code: AM54-S4-: Str P32.

It goes without saying that the historical scenes are very difficult to replicate. More often than not, the original images were photographed from vantage points that are no longer accessible due to relocation of sidewalks or the construction of new buildings that obstruct views.

Digital composite by Michelle MacDonald, 1900s/2014. Granville Street looking north from Robson Street, incorporating City of Vancouver Archives image AM54-S4-: Str P32.

Digital composite by Michelle MacDonald, 1900s/2014. Granville Street looking north from Robson Street, incorporating City of Vancouver Archives image AM54-S4-: Str P32.

Nonetheless, the obstacles are overcome by using digital imaging techniques. Students edit the photos on the computer by skewing, distorting, and twisting the images to replicate the focal length and angle of the original archival photograph. Students then mask and retouch the old and new photographs, merging past and present elements into a seamless digital composite, contrasting old and new.

Archival photograph selected by Warin Rychkun for the Merging Time assignment. View of Pender Street east of Cambie Street, showing the Sun Tower, 1927s. Reference code: AM54-S4-: Str N164.

Archival photograph selected by Warin Rychkun for the Merging Time assignment. View of Pender Street east of Cambie Street, showing the Sun Tower, 1927s. Reference code: AM54-S4-: Str N164.

Upon viewing these photographs, one notices immediately the buildings and structures that still stand today. Looking closer, the photographs reveal elements that no longer exist. Formal attire, street cars, horse drawn carriages, and old fashioned street fixtures are things of the past, but these heritage buildings provide us with anchors to that era. These photographs bring to life what Vancouver used to be, and remind us of the city’s rich heritage, history and growth.

Digital composite by Warin Rychkun, 1927/2014. View of Pender Street east of Cambie Street, showing the Sun Tower, incorporating City of Vancouver Archives image AM54-S4-: Str N164.

Digital composite by Warin Rychkun, 1927/2014. View of Pender Street east of Cambie Street, showing the Sun Tower, incorporating City of Vancouver Archives image AM54-S4-: Str N164.

Merging Time will be on display weekdays from 9 AM to 5 PM at the City of Vancouver Archives’ gallery until February 27th, 2015.

The 20-Minute Macbeth

Beginning in the late 1960s, after attending Yale on the G.I. Bill and struggling with a career as a playwright, Dr. Hugh Morgan Hill developed the idiosyncratic storytelling persona of Brother Blue. Usually dressed head to toe in blue, with blue-tinted glasses, and covered in hand-drawn blue butterflies, Hill was a transfixing figure on the streets of Boston.  One could frequently hear him re-telling Shakespeare’s plays, his own personal stories, and folk tales from Africa and Asia to any passer by that would listen. 

In this audio, from WNYC’s 1979 storytelling festival, listen to Hill distill the essence of Macbeth in 20 minutes, all the while employing a steady drum beat and interstitial blues harmonica riffs. When the three witches tell Macbeth that he is destined to be king, Brother Blue’s Macbeth explains, ”That must be jive, cause King Duncan is alive!” 

Retirement of Miriam Nisbet, Director of OGIS

On behalf of the members of the Public Interest Declassification Board, I would like to congratulate Miriam Nisbet on the eve of her retirement from Federal  service.  Throughout her Federal career, she served with distinction as a tireless advocate for transparency and access to government records.  We first met Ms. Nisbet in her role as the first Director of the Office of Government Information Services (OGIS).  We were impressed with her vision of OGIS as the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) ombudsman to provide mediation services to resolve disputes between FOIA requesters and Executive branch agencies.  Those familiar with open government and transparency advocacy regard Ms. Nisbet as a trusted advocate for the proper administration of FOIA, as Archivist of the United States, David Ferriero noted in his announcement Ms. Nisbet’s retirement.

I want to thank Ms. Nisbet personally for her support of our work to develop recommendations to modernize and transform the security classification system.  Many similar challenges exist that impede the declassification process and the administration of the FOIA at agencies, and we are grateful to Ms. Nisbet and the staff at OGIS for recognizing that limiting secrecy to the minimum necessary for the national security assists both the agencies and the public in their efforts to access and manage government information.

The members join me in thanking her for her wise counsel and her work to increase transparency and access to government records.  We wish her all the best in her retirement.

The egg came first: Sara Press artist books

Just yesterday in the Archives Reading Room a student was looking over an artist book from our collection that caught my eye.  It is accurate to say that any book that comes in its very own egg casing typically does catch my eye.

IMG_1733The book is Evolve/Unroll by book artist Sara Press, published in 2012 by her imprint Deeply Game Publications.

IMG_1736 The publisher’s website describes Evolve/Unroll:a snake that unrolls out of a felt egg, considers a recent evolutionary theory…Snake Detection Theory…which proposes that humans and certain other primates developed our excellent vision and intelligence due largely to co-evolution with snakes.”

IMG_1737Perhaps needless to say, the egg book got me curious about Sara Press’s other publications, four of which we own in the Archives & Special Collections.


 The Wolf-Girl of Midnapore was published in 2010 and is based on a true story of a feral child from 1920s India as found in the diaries of the Reverend J.A.L. Singh, a missionary to an orphanage in Bengal, India.
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This book features letterpress on handmade paper and 6 original intaglio/aquatint etching prints interleaved with decorative block printed Indian papers.  The Wolf-Girl of Midnapore is an edition of 15 and bound by the artist in red and multicolor silk.

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20 Short Poems by Zoologists, published in 2005, is a collection of found poems discovered in the texts and field guides of zoologists’ and contains four letterpress illustrations of primates’ hands and feet.

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Of 20 Short Poems by Zoologists, Deeply Game Publications writes “these excerpts of unintentionally poetic language are delicious both linguistically and in the unbelievable-yet true bizarreness of the creatures described.  The volume celebrates the poesy and affection inherent in the supposedly objective scientific eye.”

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Reared from a Cub: A Selection of Incidents Involving Captive Wildcats is precisely what it sounds like.  This work includes hundreds of excerpts from news articles describing attacks by wildcats on their captors, be it zookeepers or pet owners.

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From the publisher’s website: “This is an examination of humans’ persistence in trying to make decorations and pets out of big cats — creatures that persist in being wild.”

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“This volume has a clear Plexiglas cover, reminiscent of display habitats in zoos. The text is printed on semitransparent vellum paper, and appears layered, cage-like, over images of the animals. The silk-screened ink drawings feature wild cats in ambiguous settings. Their illustrative presentation refers to their comfortable place in our decorative visual culture, while currents of scarlet color running through the ink suggest otherwise.”

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The Sensitive and Vegetable Souls: A Bestiary, published in 2001, is the earliest Sara Press work we have in the Archives & Special Collections.  This is an edition of 30 with each volume containing unique ephemera and hand annotations.

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“This Bestiary is a genealogical palimpsest from a parallel universe, with the construction of an antique tintype album. Twenty C-print photographs depicting “beasts”, set in die-cut windows, are bound into a corkskin cover, with a sterling silver closure sculpted especially for the project.” IMG_1766“Biographies of the beasts and their intergenerational history are annotated by fountain pen, typewriter, and silkscreen, and elaborated with inserted ephemera.”

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Come check out Sara Press and other artists’ books in the Archives & Special Collections.

All quotes in this post are lifted from Sara Press’s Deeply Game Publications website.

An Autumn Update

I should apologise for how quiet this space has been lately! The beginning of the academic year has been particularly busy here in the Archives. We’ve been out in classrooms, delivering new archive workshops for primary schools. Over the next week or two, I’ll be giving an update on the sessions, the histories revealed, the collections used, as well as posting resources that may be of use to educators out there.

With the centenary of the First World War, schools across the country have been doing amazing projects: digging trenches in the playing field, rehearsing remembrance day plays, and going on field study trips to museums and war memorials to develop their understanding. We’ve been bringing archives into classrooms to investigate what life was like in 1914… how did the war affect men? women? conscientious objectors? children (from P.E. class to school dinners)?

Students practise military style drills in P.E. class C1914 Lilian Flora Best Archive Collection

Students practise military style drills in P.E. class C1914
Lilian Flora Best Archive Collection

Keep tuned into this space, but in the meantime, head over to London Metropolitan Archives’ First World War blog, ‘Emergency! London 1914’. We are this week’s guest blogger, opening up the archives to reveal the impact of the First World War on women teachers.

Maintaining Cultural Knowledge Through the Arts

This post is part of a series of blog posts related to the Autry’s Undisciplined Research Project. To learn more, read the introduction by David Burton, Senior Director of the Autry’s Institute for the Study of the American West.

In fact, most of the interviews in The Cante Sica Foundation’s Boarding School Stories archive reveal that although children learned tribal artistic practices at home, they were discouraged from practicing these customs at school. By studying primary and secondary sources in the Autry collections, I discovered that art programs were created at a small percentage of boarding schools in the early 1900s. At home, students learned traditional skills directly from their elders, but the school programs encouraged Native students to create new artistic styles that borrowed from tribal customs. This shift toward art-making that combines Native and non-Native ideas parallels a phenomenon that occurred at the California missions.

While conducting research for this project, I found myself drawing parallels between the boarding schools and my own dissertation work on the art of the California missions. The missions were similar to the boarding schools in that both institutions sought to “civilize” Native peoples and indoctrinate them with Western ideas. At both institutions, Native children were punished for speaking their languages and were taught the skills they needed to “survive” in mainstream society. In spite of administrators’ efforts, Native peoples found ways to maintain aspects of their cultures. In the case of art, this often meant producing objects that appealed to non-Native interests. In the early 1800s, weavers at Mission San Buenaventura in Ventura, California, wove baskets with Spanish-coin designs to present as gifts to Spanish dignitaries and the Spanish Crown. Roughly 100 years later, Indian students at the Santa Fe Indian School in Santa Fe, New Mexico, created art that depicted traditional iconographies while using non-Native artistic techniques.

In 1932, Dorothy Dunn founded the Studio School at the Santa Fe Indian School, the first formal Native American art training program. Dunn, a former Indian Service teacher at the Santo Domingo Pueblo, brought together students from diverse tribal backgrounds to the Studio School. As a result, a new style of painting emerged that allowed students to depict culturally specific motifs in a nontraditional medium. Examples of these paintings can be found in the Autry’s Braun Research Library Collection. The provenance records even note the prices paid for each painting sold in the Santa Fe Indian School store. Koshare at Santa Clara, a beautiful watercolor painting by Adolph Naranjo, sold for the meager price of $2. I can only imagine what a painting like this would bring today! Thankfully, the Braun Research Library acquired the General Charles McC. Reeve Collection of Studio School paintings, which are now available for us to admire and study.

Adolph Naranjo (Santa Clara Pueblo, born 1916), Koshare at Santa Clara, 1937, watercolor, 18 x 12.5 in. The General Charles McC. Reeve Collection, Braun Research Library Collection, Autry National Center; 491.G.672
Adolph Naranjo (Santa Clara Pueblo, born 1916), Koshare at Santa Clara, 1937, watercolor, 18 x 12.5 in. The General Charles McC. Reeve Collection, Braun Research Library Collection, Autry National Center; 491.G.672

Koshare at Santa Clara depicts three dancing clowns against a solid cream-colored background. The background appears to be influenced by Dunn, who taught students to use neutral colors and to portray their subjects in nonspecific environments. Even though the style of the painting reflects that of the Studio School, Naranjo’s clown figures are uniquely Puebloan, and his Santa Clara Pueblo heritage clearly informs this work. This is just one example that shows how Native artists maintain their cultural knowledge even in the face of change.

One of the sources I read at the Braun Research Library is Sally Hyer’s One House, One Voice, One Heart: Native American Education at the Santa Fe Indian School. This publication explains that the Santa Fe Indian School motto was “Build a Cultural Heritage.” The idea of building one’s cultural heritage contradicts the policy most Indian boarding schools practiced. In one of The Cante Sica Boarding School Stories, Michael Carroll (Diné) states that the Thoreau Boarding School he attended in New Mexico taught its students that “tradition is the enemy of progress.” Fortunately, arts education programs like the Studio School took a different approach. J. J. Brody points out in Indian Painters and White Patrons that Dunn’s program encouraged students “to maintain tribal and individual distinction.” This is evident in Naranjo’s painting, which evokes his indigenous heritage. Unlike other institutions that sought to replace Indian cultural knowledge with Anglo-American teachings, the Santa Fe Indian School allowed students to explore their cultures, even if within the constraints of a boarding school program. The Studio School officially closed in 1962, reopening that year as the Institute for American Indian Arts, which is devoted to contemporary Native American and Alaska Native arts education.

Cover of One House, One Voice, One Heart: Native American Education at the Santa Fe Indian School by Sally Hyer. Santa Fe, NM: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1990. Autry Library, Autry National Center; E97.6.S18 H93 1990
Cover of One House, One Voice, One Heart: Native American Education at the Santa Fe Indian School by Sally Hyer. Santa Fe, NM: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1990. Autry Library, Autry National Center; E97.6.S18 H93 1990

The Santa Fe Indian School is not the only boarding school–based arts education program. While studying the many resources at the Libraries and Archives of the Autry, I learned that Winnebago artist and teacher Angel De Cora (1871–1919) taught art classes at the Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, within the first decade of the twentieth century. Although De Cora trained in non-Native artistic traditions, she developed a curriculum in which students could make art using designs from their own tribes, but in a modern context. Handmade ceramic bowls in the Autry’s Southwest Museum of the American Indian Collection reveal that the Pine Ridge Boarding School located on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota embraced a similar approach. The red background and tan geometric design that encircles the bowl give the piece a “modern” yet indigenous appearance. In the future, I hope to examine these pieces in closer detail so as to adequately explain their cultural significance.

Olive Cottier (Pine Ridge Sioux, 1909–1974), Pine Ridge Pottery, circa 1930–1955, ceramic, 2.5 x 6.5 x 6.5 in. Donated by the Elaine A. Patterson Living Trust. Southwest Museum of the American Indian Collection, Autry National Center; 2005.40.4
Olive Cottier (Pine Ridge Sioux, 1909–1974), Pine Ridge Pottery, circa 1930–1955, ceramic, 2.5 x 6.5 x 6.5 in. Donated by the Elaine A. Patterson Living Trust. Southwest Museum of the American Indian Collection, Autry National Center; 2005.40.4

Through my research, I learned that Native American students had diverse experiences at the Indian boarding schools. Whereas students like Adolph Naranjo could express their culture at school through art, others were not as fortunate. In his interview, Michael Carroll explains that he grew up in a weaving family. As a child he assisted his mother and grandmother in the weaving process by taking care of the family’s sheep. Later in life he pursued formal education in textile design. Seeing that traditional practices are being lost, Michael decided to teach those practices and pass on his knowledge to others. Michael’s story is powerful because it shows that Native people are resilient and adaptable. Moreover, it highlights the fact that traditional arts are not static. In spite of losing their languages, facing abuse, and being removed from their communities, boarding school students found ways to maintain or revitalize their cultures and a sense of indigenous identity.

It is my hope that the Autry Undisciplined Research Project will increase awareness of the Indian boarding schools’ complex history. I am grateful to the Autry for its continued efforts to make Natives voices heard in the museum and beyond. I look forward to witnessing new and meaningful projects emerge through the Autry’s collaboration with the local Native American communities.

We invite you to send your thoughts and comments to the Autry via Facebook and Twitter, or by e-mailing David Burton at dburton@theautry.org.

Libraries & Research: Changes in libraries

[This is the fourth in a short series on our 2014 OCLC Research Library Partnership meeting, Libraries and Research: Supporting Change/Changing Support. You can read the firstsecond, and third posts and also refer to the event webpage that contains links to slides, videos, photos, and a Storify summary.]

And now, onward to the final session of the meeting, which focused appropriately enough on changes in libraries, which include new roles and and preparing to support future service demands. They are engaging in new alliances and are restructuring themselves to prepare for change in accordance with their strategic plans.

[Paul-Jervis Heath, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, and Jim Michalko]

[Paul-Jervis Heath, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, and Jim Michalko]

Lynn Silipigni Connaway (Senior Research Scientist, OCLC Research) [link to video] shared the results of several studies that identify the importance of user-centered assessment and evaluation. Lynn has been working actively in this area since 2003, looking at not only researchers but also future researchers (students!). In interviews on virtual reference, focusing on perspective users, Lynn and her team found that students use Google and Wikipedia but also rely on human resources — other students, advisers, graduate students and faculty. In looking through years of data, interviewees tend to use generic terms like “database” and refer to specific tools and sources only when they are further along in their career — this doesn’t mean they don’t use them, rather, they get used to using more sophisticated terminology as they go along. No surprise, convenience trumps everything; researchers at all levels are eager to optimize their time so many “satisfice” if the assignment or task doesn’t warrant extra time spent. From my perspective, one of the most interesting findings from Lynn’s studies relates to students’ somewhat furtive use of Wikipedia, which she calls the Learning Black Market (students look up something in Google, find sources in Wikipedia, copy and paste the citation into their paper!). Others use Facebook to get help. Some interesting demographic differences — more established researchers use Twitter, and use of Wikipedia declines as researchers get more experience. In regards to the library, engagement around new issues (like data management) causes researchers to think anew about ways the library might be useful. Although researchers of all stripes will reach out to humans for help, librarians rank low on that list. Given all of these challenges, there are opportunities for librarians and library services — be engaging and be where researchers are, both physically and virtually. We should always assess what we are doing — keep doing what’s working, cut or reinvent what is not. Lynne’s presentation provides plenty of links and references for you to check out.

Paul-Jervis Heath (Head of Innovation & Chief Designer, University of Cambridge) [link to video] spoke from the  perspective of a designer, not a librarian (he has worked on smart homes, for example). He shared findings from recent work with the Cambridge University libraries. Because of disruption, libraries face a perfect storm of change in teaching, funding, and scholarly communications. User expectations are formed by consumer technology. While we look for teachable moments, Google and tech companies do not — they try to create intuitive experiences. Despite all the changes, libraries don’t need to sit on the sidelines, they can be engaged players. Design research is important and distinguished from market research in that it doesn’t measure how people think but how they act. From observation studies, we can see that students want to study together in groups, even if they are doing their own thing. The library needs to be optimized for that. Another technique employed, asking students to use diaries to document their days. Many students prefer the convenience of studying in their room but what propels them to the library is the desire to be with others in order to focus. At Cambridge, students have a unique geographic triangle defined by where they live, the department where they go to class, and the market they prefer to shop in. Perceptions about how far something (like the library) is outside of the triangle are relative. Depending on how far your triangle points are, life can be easy or hard. Students are not necessarily up on technology so don’t make assumptions. It turns out that books (the regular, paper kind) are great for studying! But students use ebooks to augment their paper texts, or will use when all paper books are gone. Shadowing (with permission) is another technique which allows you to immerse yourself in a researcher’s life and understand their mental models. Academics wear lot of different hats, play different roles within the university and are too pressed for time to learn new systems. It’s up to the library to create efficiencies and make life easier for researchers. Paul closed by emphasizing six strategic themes: transition from physical to digital; library spaces; sustainable classic library services; supporting research and scholarly communications; making special collections more available; and creating touchpoints that will bring people back to the library seamlessly.

Jim Michalko (Vice President, OCLC Research Library Partnership) [link to video] talked about his recent work looking at library organizational structures and restructuring. (Jim will be blogging about this work soon, so I won’t give more than a few highlights.) For years, libraries have been making choices about what to do and how to do it, and libraries have been reorganizing themselves to get this (new) work done. Jim gathered feedback from 65 institutions in the OCLC Research Library Partnership and conducted interviews with a subset of those, in order to find out if structure indeed follows strategy. Do new structures represent markets or adjacent strategies (in business speak)? We see libraries developing capacities in customer relationship management and we see this reflected in user-focused activities. Almost all institutions interviewed were undertaking restructuring based on a changes external to the library, such as new constituencies and expectations. Organizations are orienting themselves to be more user centered, and to align themselves with a new direction taken by the university. We see many libraries bringing in skill sets beyond those normally found in the library package. Many institutions charged a senior position with helping to run a portion of a regional or national service. Other similarities: all had a lot of communication about restructuring. Almost all also related to a space plan.

This session was followed by a discussion session and I invite you to watch it, and also to watch this lovely summary of our meeting delivered by colleague Titia van der Werf (less than 7 minutes long and worth watching!):

If you attended the meeting or were part of the remote viewing audience for all or part of it, or if you watched any of the videos, I hope you will leave some comments with your reactions. Thanks for reading!

The new virtual life of early analogue photography: digitising Oxford University’s magic lantern slide collection.

Originally posted on History of Art at Oxford University:

The History of Art Department’s Visual Resources Centre makes its archive of glass slide photography available in an online database.

Dina Akhmadeeva

Figure 1 Anonymous Photographer  View of Constantinople The Department of the History of Art, Oxford

Figure 1

Anonymous Photographer

View of Constantinople

The Department of the History of Art, Oxford

There exist strong ties between the discipline of art history and the medium of photography, ties which were forged in the mid-19th century with photography’s development, and which still exist today. In 1947 France’s then-culture minister André Malraux described art history as ‘the history of that which can be photographed’, while more recently art historian Donald Preziosi remarked that, “art history as we know it today is the child of photography”. In lectures, books, classes or articles, art historians have come to rely on photographic reproductions of artworks – whether painting, architecture, design or sculpture – as essential components to the way the discipline functions.

The History of Art Department’s Visual…

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Libraries & Research: Supporting change in the university

[This is the third in a short series on our 2014 OCLC Research Library Partnership meeting, Libraries and Research: Supporting Change/Changing Support. You can read the first and second posts and also refer to the event webpage that contains links to slides, videos, photos, and a Storify summary.]

[Driek Heesakkers, Paolo Manghi, Micah Altman, Paul Wouters, and John Scally]

[Driek Heesakkers, Paolo Manghi, Micah Altman, Paul Wouters, and John Scally]

As if changes in research are not enough, changes are also coming at the university level and at the national level. The new imperatives of higher education around Open Access, Open Data and Research Assessment are impacting the roles of libraries in managing and providing access to e-research outputs, in helping define the university’s data management policies, and demonstrating value in terms of research impact. This session explored these issues and more!

John MacColl (University Librarian at University of St Andrews) [link to video] opened the session, speaking briefly about the UK context to illustrate how libraries are taking up new roles within academia. John presented this terse analysis of the landscape (and I thank him for providing notes!):

  • Professionally, we live increasingly in an inside-out environment. But our academic colleagues still require certification and fixity, and their reputation is based on a necessarily conservative world view (tied up with traditional modes of publishing and tenure)
  • Business models are in transition. The first phase of transition was from publisher print to publisher digital. We are now in a phase which he terms as deconstructive, based on a reassessment of the values of scholarly publishing, driven by the high cost of journals.
  • There are several reasons for this: among the main ones are the high costs of publisher content, and our responsibility as librarians for the sustainability of the scholarly record; another is the emergence of public accountability arguments – the public has paid for this scholarship, they have the right to access outputs.
  • What these three new areas of research library activity have in common is the intervention of research funders into the administration of research within universities, although the specifics vary considerably in different nations.

John Scally (Director of Library and University Collections, University of Edinburgh) [link to video] added to the conversation, speaking about the role of the research library in research data management (RDM) at the University of Edinburgh. From John’s perspective, the library is a natural place for RDM work to happen because the library has been in the business of managing and curating stuff for a long time and services are at the core of the library. Naturally, making content available in different ways is a core responsibility of the library. Starting research data conversations around policy and regulatory compliance is difficult — it’s easier to frame as a problem around storage, discovery and reuse of data. At Edinburgh they tried to frame discussions around how can we help, how can you be more competitive, do better research? If a researcher comes to the web page about data management plans (say at midnight, the night before a grant proposal is due) that webpage should do something useful at the time of need, not direct researchers to come to the library during the day. Key takeaways: Blend RDM into core services, not a side business. Make sure everyone knows who is leading. Make sure the money is there, and you know who is responsible. Institutional policy is a baby step along the way, implementation is most important. RDM and open access are ways of testing (and stressing) your systems and procedures – don’t ignore fissures and gaps. An interesting correlation between RDM and the open access repository – since RDM has been implemented at Edinburgh, deposits of papers have increased.

Driek Heesakkers (Project Manager at the University of Amsterdam Library) [link to video] told us about RDM at the University of Amsterdam and in the Netherlands. Netherlands differs from other landscapes, characterized as “bland” – not a lot of differences between institutions in terms of research outputs. A rather complicated array of institutions for humanities, social science, health science, etc, all trying to define their roles in RDM. For organizations who are mandated to capture data, it’s vital that they not just show up at the end of the process to scoop up data, but that they be embedding in the environment where the work is happening, where tools are being used.  Policy and infrastructure need to be rolled out together. Don’t reinvent the wheel – if there are commercial partners or cloud services that do the work well, that’s all for the good. What’s the role of the library? We are not in the lead with policy but we help to interpret and implement — similarly with technology. The big opportunity is in the support – if you have faculty liaisons, you should be using them for data support. Storage is boring but necessary. The market for commercial solutions is developing which is good news – he’d prefer to buy, not built, when appropriate. This is a time for action — we can’t be wary or cautious.

Switching gears away from RDM, Paul Wouters (Director of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at the University of Leiden) [link to video] spoke about the role of libraries in research assessment. His organization combines fundamental research and services for institutions and individual researchers. With research becoming increasingly international and interdisciplinary, it’s vital that we develop methods of monitoring novel indicators. Some researchers have become, ironically and paradoxically, fond of assessment (may be tied up with the move towards the quantified self?). However, self assessment can be nerve wracking and may not return useful information. Managers may are also interested in individual assessment because it may help them give feedback.  Altmetrics do not correlate closely to citation metrics, and and can vary considerably across disciplines. It’s important to think about the meaning of various ways of measuring impact. As an example of other ways of measuring, Paul presented the ACUMEN (Academic Careers Understood through Measurement and Norms) project, which allows researchers to take the lead and tell a story given evidence from his or her portfolio. An ACUMEN profile includes a career narrative supported by expertise, outputs, and influence. Giving a stronger voice to researchers is more positive than researchers not being involved in or misunderstanding (and resenting) indicators.

Micah Altman (Director of Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries) [link to video] discussed the importance of researcher identification and the need to uniquely identify researchers in order to manage the scholarly record and to support assessment. Micah spoke in part as a member of a group that OCLC Research colleague Karen Smith-Yoshimura led, the Registering Researchers Task Group working group (their report, Registering Researchers in Authority Files is now available). It explored motivations, state of the practice, observations and recommendations. The problem is that there is more stuff, more digital content, and more people (the average number of authors on journal articles have gone up, in some cases way up). To put it mildly, disambiguating names is not a small problem. A researcher may have one or more identifiers, which may not link to one another and may come from different sources. The task group looked at the problem not only from the perspective of the library, but also from the perspective of various stakeholders (publishers, universities, researchers, etc.). Approaches to managing name identifiers result in some very complicated (and not terribly efficient) workflows. Normalizing and regularizing this data has big potential payoffs in terms of reducing errors in analytics, and creating a broad range of new (and more accurate) measures. Fortunately, with a recognition of the benefits, interoperability between identifier systems is increasing, as is the practice of assigning identifiers to researcher. One of the missing pieces is not only identifying researchers but also their roles in a given piece of work (this is a project that Micah is working on with other collaborators). What are steps that libraries can take? Prepare to engage! Work across stakeholder communities; demand more than PDFs from publishers. And prepare for more (and different) types of measurement.

Paolo Manghi (Researcher at Institute of Information Science and Technologies “A. Faedo” (ISTI), Italian National Research Council) [link to video] talked about the data infrastructures that support access to the evolving scholarly record and the requirements needed for different data sources (repositories, CRIS systems, data archives, software archives, etc.) to interoperate. Paolo spoke as a researcher, but also as the technical manager of the EU funded OpenAIRE project. This project started in 2009 out of a strong open access push from the European Commission. The project initially collected metadata and information about access to research outputs. The scope was expanded to include not only articles but also other research outputs. The work is done by human input and also technical infrastructure. They rely on input from repositories, also use software developed elsewhere. Information is funneled via 32 national open access desks. They have developed numerous guidelines (for metadata, for data repositories, and for CRIS managers to export data to be compatible with OpenAIRE). The project fills three roles — a help desk for national agencies, a portal (linking publications to research data and information about researchers) and a repository for data and articles that are otherwise homeless (Zenodo). Collecting all this information into one place allows for some advanced processes like deduplication, identifying relationships, demonstrating productivity, compliance, and geographic distribution. OpenAIRE interacts with other repository networks, such as SHARE (US), and ANDS (Australia). The forthcoming Horizon 2020 framework will cause some significant challenges for researchers and service providers because it puts a larger emphasis on access for non-published outputs.

The session was followed by a panel discussion.

I’ll conclude tomorrow with a final posting, wrapping up this series.

Libraries & Research: Supporting change in research

[This is the second in a short series on our 2014 OCLC Research Library Partnership meeting, Libraries and Research: Supporting Change/Changing Support. You can read the first post and also refer to the event webpage contains links to slides, videos, photos, Storify summaries.]

[Anja Smit, Adam Farquhar, Antal van den Bosch, and Ricky Erway]

[Anja Smit, Adam Farquhar, Antal van den Bosch, and Ricky Erway]

Anja Smit (University Librarian at Utrecht University) [link to video] chaired this session which focused on the ways in which libraries are or could be supporting eScholarship. In opening she shared a story that reflects how the library is really a creature of the larger institution. At Utrect the library engaged in scenario planning* and identified their future as being all about open access and online access to sources. When they brought faculty in to comment on their plans, they were told that they were “going too fast” and that they needed to slow down. Sometimes researchers request services and sometimes the library just acts to fill a void.  But innovation is not only starting but also stopping. The Utretch experience with VREs are an example of a well-reasoned library “push” of services – thought they would have 200 research groups actively using the VRE but only 25 took it up. Annotated books on the other hand is an example of “pull,” something requested by researchers. Dataverse (a network for storing data) started as a service in the library that was needed by faculty but ultimately moved to DANS due to scale and infrastructure issues.  The decision to discontinue local search was a “pull” decision, based on evidence that researchers were not using it. Ultimately, librarians need to be “embedded” in researcher workflows. If we don’t know what they are doing, we won’t be able to help them.

Ricky Erway (Senior Program Officer, OCLC Research) [link to video] gave her own story of push and pull — OCLC Research was asked by the Research Information Management Interest Group to “do something about digital humanities”. The larger question was, where can libraries make a unique contribution?  Ricky and colleague Jennifer Schaffner immersed themselves in the researchers’ perspective regarding processes, issues, and needs, and then tried to see where the library might fill gaps. Their paper [Does Every Research Library Need a Digital Humanities Center?] was written for library directors not already engaged with digital humanities. The answer to the question posed in the title of the paper is, “It depends.”  The report suggests that a constellation of engagement possibilities should be considered based on local needs. Start with what you are already offering and ensure that researchers are aware of those services. Scholars enthusiasm for metadata was a surprising finding — humanities researchers use and value metadata sources such as VIAF. (Colleague Karen Smith-Yoshimura has previously blogged about contributions to VIAF from the Syriac scholarly community and contributions from the Perseus Catalog.) A challenge for libraries is figuring out, when to support, when to collaborate, and when to lead. There is no one size fits all in digital humanities and libraries — not only is it the case that “changes in research are not evenly distributed,” but also every library has its own set of strengths and services which may be good matches for local needs.

Adam Farquhar (Head of Digital Scholarship at the British Library) [link to video] talked about what happens when large digital collections are brought together with scholars. Adam’s role, in brief is to get the British Library’s digital collections into the hands of scholars so they can create knowledge. Adam and his team have been trying to find ways to take advantage of the digital qualities of digital collections — up to now, most libraries have treated digital collections the same as print collections apart from delivery. This is a mistake, because there are unique aspects to large-scale digital collections and we should be leveraging them. The British Library has a cross-disciplinary team which is much needed for tackling the challenges at hand. Rather than highlighting the broad range of projects being undertaken at the BL, Adam chose instead to focus on a few small, illustrative examples. In the British Library Labs, developers are invited to sit alongside scholars and co-evolve projects and solutions. The BL Labs Competition is a challenge to encourage people to put forward interesting projects and needs. Winners of the 2014 competition included one from Australia (showing that there is global interest in the BL’s collections). One winner is the Victorian Meme Machine, which will pair Victorian jokes with likely images to illustrate what makes Victorian jokes funny. Another project extracted images from digitized books and put a million images on Flickr (where people go to look for images, not for books). These images have received 160 million views in the last year. These are impressive metrics especially when you consider that previously no one alive had looked any of those images. Now lots of people have and they have been used in a variety of ways, from an art piece at Burning Man, to serious research, to commercial use. Adam’s advice? Relax and take a chance on release of information into the public domain.

Antal van den Bosch (Professor at the Radboud University Nijmegen) [link to video] spoke from his perspective as a researcher. Scientists have long had the ability to shift from first gear (working at the chalkboard) to 5th or 6th gear (doing work on the Large Hadron Collider). Humanists have recently discovered that there is a 3rd or 4th gear and want to go there. In the humanities there is fast and slow scholarship. In his own field, linguistics and computer science, there is no data like more data. Large, rich corpuses are highly valued (and more common over time). One example is Twitter – in the Netherlands, seven million Tweets a day are generated and collected by his institute. Against this corpus, researchers can study the use of language at different times of day and use location metadata to identify use of regional dialect. Another example is the HiTiME (Historical Timeline Mining and Extraction) project which uses linked data in historical sources to enable the study of social movements in Europe. Within texts, markup of persons, locations, and events allow visualizations including timelines and social networks. Analysis of newspaper archives revealed both labor strikes that happened and those that didn’t. However, library technology was not up to the task of keeping up with the data so that findings were not repeatable, underscoring the need for version control and adequate technological underpinnings. Many times in these projects the software goes along with the data, so storing both data and code is important.  Most researchers are not sure where to put their research data and may be using cloud storage like GitHub. Advice and guidance are all well and good but what researchers really need is storage, and easy to use services (“an upload button, basically”). In the Netherlands and in Europe, there are long tail storage solutions for e-research data. Many organizations and institutions say “here, let me help you with that.” Libraries seem well situated to help with metadata, but researchers want full text search against very big data sets like Twitter or Google Books. Libraries should be asking themselves if they can host something that big. If libraries can’t offer collections like these, at scale, researchers may not be interested.  On the other hand in the humanities which has a “long tail of small topics,” there are many single researchers doing small research projects and here the library may be well positioned to help.

If you are interested in more details you can watch the discussion session that followed:

I’ll be back later to summarize the last two segments of the meeting.

*A few years ago, Jim and I attended one of the ARL 2030 Scenarios workshops. Since that time, I’ve been quite interested in the use of scenario planning as an approach for organizations like libraries that hope to build for resilience.

 

Rare Home Movie From the Claude and ZerNona Black Papers Has Been Preserved


We are pleased to share with the world a piece of history that was in danger of being lost forever.  “Home movie: Travel scenes in the United States, Europe and the Middle East, circa 1959” is an amateur film/home movie from the Claude and ZerNona Black Papers that Donna Guerra, our former Project Archivist, had the foresight to protect.  She successfully acquired a grant from the National Film Preservation Foundation to send the film to Colorlab for preservation.  The film is now available for anyone to watch streaming online.
This silent 16mm film, shot in the late 1950s, is one of three home movies that we are fortunate to have in the Claude and ZerNona Black Papers. Thanks go to Donna Guerra for all her hard work in making this film available to the public and preserving it for future generations!
Donna Guerra has enumerated a number of reasons why this is an important film to preserve and I include them, in her words, below:

  • “Although other areas of the United States have 16mm films available that reflect African American life in the 1950s, I have not been able to locate such films byamateur or non-professional African American persons from the Southwest United States. Therefore, the relative dearth of access to such films, both regionally and locally in San Antonio, makes preservation of and access to our film of critical importance.  One local repository at the University of Texas at San Antonio holds a small quantity of archival materials created by local African Americans.  However, the Claude and ZerNona Black Papers stand alone as the most single and substantial (100 cubic feet) African American collection in San Antonio.  In addition, the two films already digitized are the only 16mm films created by African Americans from San Antonio in the 1950s that are available on the world wide web.  And further, preservation of this film would complement the two digitized films to which we already provide world wide web access.”
  •  “One of the main contexts of the film is that it provides evidence that African Americans engaged in international travel, and that the impetus for this particular travel was faith-based.  Reverend Black was very involved with various local, regional, and national Baptist organizations.  Reverend and ZerNona Black, along with other United States attendees, were part of a Baptist World Alliance (BWA) travel group.  The BWA was established in 1905 in London, England, as a more liberal voice and often times has been a vocal defender of human rights.  The film provides a ground for sociopolitical considerations regarding the conditions that made it possible for African Americans to travel overseas in the 1950s.  Would travel have been made more possible as a faith-based activity, rather than for leisure alone?” 
  •  “The particular portion of the film that takes place in London shows signage that reads, the ‘American League Incorporating the Coloured Peoples Benevolent Association Office,’ at 27 Red Lion Street, Holborn WCI.  There is a speaker standing, with a sign below him that says ‘Coloured Peoples Welfare’. After doing some research on the internet, in British web catalogs and in academic subscription databases, on the association names and the address, I was able to find very little.  I did find a small amount of evidence that revealed that the address of 27 Red Lion Street has historically been home to a variety of radical and socially progressive groups, including the Freedom Press, a radical bookshop and publisher… I believe the evidence of the event depicted at 27 Red Lion Street in the context of the BWA Golden Jubilee Congress holds excellent research value.”
  •  “The rarity of African American home movies depicting work and social life, and events, puts the film in a rare category.”
  •  “There is no real likelihood that the film exists in duplication anywhere, which qualifies it as rare and unique.”

We are grateful to the National Film Preservation Foundation, Colorlab, and Donna Guerra, for making it possible for us to share this rare film with you. 

    3 herramientas muy poco conocidas de Windows 7 y 8 de las que seguramente no habrás oído hablar.

    3 Herramientas ocultas en Windows 7 y 8 que necesitas conocer
    https://www.denoticias.es/ 17/11/2014

    Si crees que conoces Windows de dentro a fuera, TuneUp, la compañía experta en la mejora de rendimiento y optimización de PCs, pretende sorprenderte con estas 3 herramientas muy poco conocidas de las que seguramente no habrás oído hablar.

    1. Informe de eficiencia energética

    Esta herramienta es una de las favoritas para dispositivos portátiles, ya que fue desarrollada por Microsoft para comprobar las deficiencias de energía en Windows 7 y 8. El “Informe de Diagnósticos de eficiencia energética” proporciona información detallada sobre procesos, dispositivos y características de Windows que consumen la batería rápidamente.

    Acceder a éste reporte puede resultar un poco complicado para los que tienen menos experiencia, pero siguiendo las instrucciones a continuación, no debería haber ningún problema. Primero, ve al menú inicio en Windows 7 o a la función de búsqueda en la pantalla inicio en Windows 8 (lupa) y escribe “cmd”. Con el botón derecho del ratón pulsa sobre “cmd” y selecciona “Ejecutar como Administrador”. Cuando se abra la nueva ventana con fondo negro, escribe “powercfg/energy” y espera durante 60 segundos a que se complete la comprobación de energía del sistema.

    Al finalizar, se mostrará un resumen breve de errores y avisos, y también la ruta en la que se puede consultar el informe completo. En este reporte, que se abrirá en el navegador, es posible identificar los errores como los drivers y programas que son responsables de un alto consumo de batería y las soluciones para ello.

    2. Monitor de rendimiento y recursos

    La pérdida de rendimiento y estabilidad del PC con el tiempo es un hecho comprobado. Las causas suelen ser un conjunto de demasiados programas de terceros instalados, acumulación de archivos innecesarios, controladores de dispositivo obsoletos, malware, etc. Es posible comprobar el sistema con la herramienta oculta “Monitor de rendimiento y recursos”.

    Para acceder a ella ve al “Panel de Control”, “Sistema y Seguridad”, “Sistema” y abajo a la izquierda pulsa sobre “Información y herramientas de rendimiento”, selecciona “Herramientas avanzadas” y pulsa sobre “Generar un informe de mantenimiento del sistema”. Se abrirá una nueva ventana y tu sistema será observado durante 60 segundos. Luego, podrás revisar uno a uno los avisos y las recomendaciones de mejora para el rendimiento del sistema.

    3. Calibración de color de la pantalla

    ¿Los colores de tu escritorio o las fotos no son tan brillantes como deberían ser? ¿Las imágenes parece que hayan sido lavadas? Windows puede ayudar a solucionar estos problemas y optimizar tu pantalla mediante el uso de una función de calibración integrada para ajustar los niveles de brillo, contraste, nitidez y color de forma adecuada. Para iniciar la herramienta abre el menú inicio en Windows 7 o la función de búsqueda en la pantalla inicio en Windows 8, y escribe “dccw” y pulsa “Enter”.

    En la nueva ventana te guiará un paso a paso dónde podrás mejorar todos los ajustes de la pantalla.
    Estos son sólo una muestra de la multitud de herramientas de Windows ocultas qué pueden ser útiles no sólo para profesionales de TI sino para todos los usuarios. Además, son totalmente compatibles con TuneUp Utilities. Prueba ahora TuneUp Utilities, compatible con todas las versiones de Windows desde Windows XP, hasta Windows 8.1. Para más información, visita la página web oficial http://www.tuneup.mx/products/tuneup-utilities/features/.

    Acerca de TuneUp
    TuneUp es el proveedor líder de herramientas de software inteligentes que permiten que los usuarios ajusten el sistema operativo y los programas para obtener un rendimiento óptimo. TuneUp Utilities protege a los usuarios de los problemas en los equipos y aumenta su rendimiento y seguridad.
    Este enfoque tan centrado en los clientes y su gran atención al detalle en la entrega de productos y la prestación de servicios ha llevado a AVG Technologies a adquirir TuneUp.

    AVG Technologies adquirió TuneUp en agosto de 2011 porque cree que comparten un objetivo común: eliminar algunos de los quebraderos de cabeza de la vida digital y hacer que nuestros mundos digitales sean más fáciles de explorar y proteger, y que se pueda disfrutar de ellos de un modo más agradable.
    La suma de las opiniones de los más de 150 millones de usuarios de la sólida comunidad de AVG con los 15 años de experiencia de TuneUp garantizará que, juntos, AVG Technologies y TuneUp seguirán evolucionando para satisfacer las necesidades de los clientes que se conectan a Internet.

    TuneUp está disponible en español, alemán, inglés, francés y portugués. Los usuarios finales pueden encontrar TuneUp Utilities en el sitio web de la compañía en: www.tuneup.mx


    Autor: Federico Poggesi

    Libraries & Research, Supporting Change/Changing Support: Introduction

    Libraries and Research: Supporting Change/Changing Support was a meeting on 11-12 June for members of the OCLC Research Library Partnership. The meeting focused on how the evolving nature of academic research practices and scholarship are placing new demands on research library services. Shifting attitudes toward data sharing, methodologies in eScholarship, and rethinking the very definition of scholarly discourse . . . . these are all areas that have deep implications for the library. But it is not only the research process that is changing; research universities are evolving in new directions, often becoming more outcome-oriented, changing to reflect the increased importance of impact assessment, and competing for funding. Libraries are taking on new roles and responsibilities to support change in research and in the academy. From our perch in OCLC Research, we can see that as libraries prepare to meet new demands and position themselves for the future, libraries themselves are changing, both in their organizational structure and in their alliances with other parts of the university and with external entities.

    This meeting focused on three thematic areas: supporting change in research; supporting change at the university level; and changing support structures in the library.

    Our meeting venue, close to the Centraal Station.

    Our meeting venue, close to the Centraal Station.

    For the first time, and in response to an increasing number of active partners in Europe we held our Partnership meeting outside of the United States. Since we have a number of partners in the Netherlands, we opted to hold our meeting in Amsterdam. We were in a terrific venue, and the beautiful weather didn’t hurt.

    Meeting attendees were greeted by Maria Heijne (Director of the University of Amsterdam Library and of the Library of Applied Sciences/Hogeschool of Amsterdam). [Link to video.] Maria highlighted the global perspective represented by those attending the meeting — which haled from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Germany, Australia, Japan, the US and Canada. The UofA library is a unique combination of library, special collections, and museum of archaeology. The offer a strong combination of services for the university and for the city of Amsterdam. Like so many libraries in the Partnership and beyond, the UofA library is preparing for a new facilities, and looking to shift effort from cataloging and other backroom functions to working more closely with researchers and other customers.

    Maria Heijne, University of Amsterdam

    Maria Heijne, University of Amsterdam

    Titia van der Werf (Senior Program Officer, OCLC Research) introduced the meeting and our themes [link to video], welcoming special guests from DANS, LIBER, RLUK and from OCLC EMEA Regional Council. The OCLC Research Library Partnership focuses on projects that have been defined as being of importance to partners. Examples of work in OCLC Research in support of the Partnership include looking at shifts in publication patterns and shifts in research (as highlighted in the Evolving Scholarly Record report), challenges in restructuring and redefining within the library (reflected in work done by my colleague Jim Michalko), and studying the behavior of researchers so we can understand evolving needs (reflected in our work synthesizing user and behavior studies). We also see interest and uptake in new ways of thinking about cataloging data, recasting metadata as identifiers (such as identifiers for people, subjects, or for works). As research changes, as universities change, so too do libraries need to change.

    With that introduction to our meeting, I’ll close. Look for a short series of posts summarizing the remainder of the meeting, focusing on the three themes.

    [The event webpage contains links to slides, videos, photos, Storify summaries]

    Big Data está cambiando nuestra realidad y la de las empresas

    Big Data, ¿realidad disparatada o revolucionaria?
    http://www.haycanal.com/ 17/11/2014
    Big Data, ¿realidad disparatada o revolucionaria?



    Teradata, compañía líder en plataformas, aplicaciones de marketing y servicios de análisis de datos, explica cómo el Big Data está cambiando nuestra realidad y la de las empresas.

    Larry Ellison, CEO de Oracle, comentó una vez que “la industria informática es la única que está más impulsada por la moda que la ropa femenina”. La palabra de moda de la industria, “Big Data”, ha sido tan utilizada que ya no forma parte solo del léxico tecnológico, sino que ha entrado en la conciencia pública a través de los medios de comunicación. Durante ese proceso, el Big Data ha sido descrito como “sin precedentes” y “disparatado”.

    Esto plantea un dilema, ¿es el Big Data un nuevo concepto de marketing inventado para ayudar a vendedores o es realmente un concepto interesante que plantea un nuevo futuro?

    Para entender por qué el fenómeno del Big Data sí que tiene precedentes solo hay que recordar la historia del sector retail, que ha visto cómo la información que maneja se ha multiplicada en las tres últimas décadas. Primero los sistemas EPoS y luego la tecnología RFID transformaron su capacidad de analizar, comprender y gestionar sus operaciones.

    “En el caso de Teradata, nosotros enviamos el primer sistema comercial del mundo de Procesamiento Paralelo Masivo (MPP) con un Terabyte de almacenamiento a Kmart en 1986. Para los estándares de la época se trataba de un sistema enorme (ocupó un camión cuando se envió) y permitió a Kmart capturar los datos de ventas diarios en tienda así como los números de referencia, lo que revolucionó la industria retail”, asegura Martin Willcox, Director de Producto y Solutciones de Marketing International en Teradata Corporation.

    Hoy en día, muchos portátiles ya cuentan un terabyte de almacenamiento y pueden guardar los datos de transacciones y números de referencia, lo que ha revolucionado de nuevo el sector y supone un reto para los pequeños vendedores que tienen que competir con grandes cadenas de suministro y la sofisticada segmentación conductual que Amazon lleva a cabo. Lo mismo ha ocurrido con el impacto que los sistemas de facturación y los conmutadores de red han tenido en las telecomunicaciones o con la automatización de sucursales y la banca online, que han cambiado totalmente la financiación al por menor.

    Es un hecho que desde que se inventaron los ordenadores ha habido un crecimiento exponencial del volumen de datos como predecía la ley de Moore, lo que ha permitido que cada vez más procesos de negocio sean digitalizados. Asimismo, los ocho años que las personas encargadas tardaron en procesar los datos recogidos del censo de EEUU en 1880 fue la motivación para que Herman Hollerith, fundador de la Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine Company que más tarde se convirtió en International Business Machines (IBM), inventara las “tarjetas de Hollerith” o “tarjetas perforadas”.

    Por otro lado, sería un error desestimar el Big Data como “disparatado” ya que fuerzas significativas están cambiando la manera en la que las empresas piensan acerca de la información y la analítica. Estas fuerzas tomaron fuerza a partir de finales de 1990 a raíz de tres innovaciones tecnológicas disruptivas que produjeron grandes cambios tanto en los negocios como en la sociedad y que han tenido como resultado la aparición del término Big Data.

    La primera innovación fue el crecimiento de la World Wide Web, lo que permitió a gigantes de Internet como Amazon, eBay y Google emerger y dominar sus respectivos mercados aprovechando los datos “clickstream”, lo que permitió una personalización masiva de sus sitios web. Estos datos se extrajeron de sofisticados análisis que les permitieron comprender las preferencias del usuario y su comportamiento. Esta nueva realidad ha llevado a que algunos analistas ya predigan que Amazon, una empresa que no existía antes de 1995, pronto se convierta en el minorista más grande del mundo.

    Las tecnologías social media, ampliadas y aceleradas por el impacto de las tecnologías móviles, representan la segunda de estas grandes revoluciones disruptivas. Los datos que generan están permitiendo que cada vez más compañías conozcan no sólo qué hacemos, sino también dónde lo hacemos, cómo pensamos y con quién compartimos nuestros pensamientos. Martin Willcox comenta: “La característica de LinkedIn “personas que puedes conocer” es un ejemplo clásico de esta segunda innovación del Big Data. Comprender las interacciones indirectas de los clientes puede ser una enorme fuente de valor para compañías B2C como Netflix, que han crecido gracias a sus sofisticados motores de recomendación”.

    El “Internet de las Cosas”, redes de dispositivos inteligentes interconectados que son capaces de comunicarse unos con otros y con el mundo que les rodea, es la tercera gran novedad impulsada surgida en las dos últimas décadas. A consecuencia de la ley de Moore que asegura que “los dispositivos informáticos simples son ahora son increíblemente baratos y cada vez lo serán más”, el Internet de las Cosas está llegando cada vez a más objetos y procesos. El viejo dicho de que “lo que se mide, se controla” es cada vez más redundante, pues estamos entrando en una era en la que sensores eficaces, resistentes, inteligentes y, sobre todo, baratos ya pueden medir todo.

    Las tres “nuevas olas de innovación” del Big Data permiten comprender, respectivamente: cómo interactúan las personas con las cosas; cómo las personas interactúan con sus semejantes y cómo complejos sistemas de cosas interactúan entre sí. Juntas, las tres nuevas innovaciones hacen posible que las analíticas evolucionen del estudio de las transacciones al estudio de las interacciones, pues una vez que se han recogido e integrado los datos que conforman las transacciones y eventos, se puede medir y analizar el comportamiento tanto de los sistemas como de las personas.

    En una era de hiper-competencia producto de la globalización y la digitalización, analizar con eficacia estas nuevas fuentes de datos y actuar en función de los resultados obtenidos está cambiando la forma de hacer negocios y proporciona a las compañías una ventaja competitiva importante.

    “Contrariamente a algunos despliegues publicitarios de la industria, mucho de lo aprendido sobre gestión de la información y análisis durante las últimas tres décadas es todavía relevante, aunque es cierto que explotar adecuadamente las tres innovaciones de Big Data también requierá que se dominen algunos nuevos desafíos”, afirma Martin Willcox.

    MARTIN WILLCOX DE TERADATA

    Google Genomics proyecto para crear una especie de Internet del ADN

    Google también quiere almacenar tu información genética
    http://bitelia.com/ 17/11/2014

    Google Genomics es un proyecto para crear una especie de Internet del ADN en el que los médicos podrán buscar información relacionada con el genoma humano y podrán realizar consultas para avanzar en el desarrollo de investigaciones en el campo de la salud.

    Google es una de las empresas más grandes y acaparadoras del mundo. Gracias a sus productos y servicios podemos realizar búsquedas en Internet, tener una cuenta de correo electrónico, almacenar archivos en la nube, tener un perfil social, escuchar música y ver videos, crear documentos de texto, tener un navegador de Internet, tener un sistema operativo completo, entre otras muchas, muchas, muchas, muchas (…) posibilidades.

    Uno de los campos en el que pocas empresas desarrolladoras de tecnología han incursionado es la genética; y es que, quién pensaría que se puede realizar algo respecto a la genética, bueno Google ya lo hizo.
    Google Genomics

    La secuencia genética completa de una sola persona produce más de 100GB de datos en bruto.

    Gracias a los avances tecnológicos, la generación de datos en la investigación científica es mucho más fácil que antes; sin embargo, el análisis y la interpretación siguen siendo aspectos un poco más complejos debido al constante aumento del volumen de información.

    Google ha creado un convenio con la Alianza Global para la Genética y la Salud (Global Alliance), que permitirá “elintercambio responsable, seguro y eficaz de la información genética y clínica en la nube con las comunidades de investigación y cuidado de la salud, en cumplimiento con los más altos estándares de ética y privacidad.”

    Google también quiere almacenar tu información genética

    Google Genomics forma parte de la plataforma Google Cloud, el cual permite a los desarrolladores crear, probar e implementar aplicaciones sobre la infraestructura de Google. El proyecto se puso en marcha en marzo de este año, pero no tuvo tanto impacto como otros anuncios de Google.

    Google Genomics es un proyecto completo que incluye el almacenamiento de información genética en la nube, un buscador especializado y la posibilidad de realizar consultas respecto de dicha información para ayudar a los especialistas de la salud en el desarrollo de experimentos, estudios sobre determinada población genética o el descubrimiento de curas y tratamientos. Lo más importante es que la medicina pronto podrá contar con una especie de Internet del ADN en el que los médicos serán capaces de realizar búsquedas.

    Por ejemplo, si yo fuera a contraer cáncer de pulmón en el futuro, los médicos van a secuenciar mi genoma y el genoma de mi tumor y, a continuación, realizarán consultas contra una base de datos de 50 millones de genomas. El resultado será ‘Oye, aquí está el medicamento que funciona mejor para ti.’ – Deniz Kural


    Actualmente ya se pueden encontrar 3,500 genomas de proyectos públicos en los servidores de Google. El costo de almacenamiento de cada genoma varía entre $25 y $0.25 dólares por año, aunque se estima que entre más crezca la demanda los costos disminuirán.


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