May 5, 1970 National Student Strike

On May 5, 1970, students and faculty of Amherst College joined more than 1,250 other colleges and universities in a nationwide student strike.

00000005The May 5 strike followed on the heels of a May Day demonstration at Yale protesting the trial of the New Haven Black Panthers and the surveillance of the Black Panthers by the FBI.  As the protest grew into a national movement, the motivation for the strike expanded to include President Nixon’s recent expansion of the Vietnam War and the death of four students at a demonstration at Kent State.

DOC013-1The Amherst Student, May 4, 1970 states the three strike demands as follows:

  1. That the United States government end its systematic oppression of political dissidents and release all political prisoners, such as Bobby Seale and other members of the Black Panther Party.
  2. That the United States government cease its expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia and Laos; that it unilaterally and immediately withdraw all forces from Southeast Asia.
  3. That the universities end their complicity with the United States war machine by immediate end to defense research, ROTC, counterinsurgency research and other such programs.














The editions of the Amherst Student leading up to the strike include editorials on reasons Amherst College should participate in the national strike, letters to the editor encouraging students to resist the draft, and articles calling for Amherst faculty to suspend classes for the length of the strike.


DOC013-5The May 7, 1970 Amherst Student includes the faculty and student resolutions, including the announcement that the faculty of Amherst College had voted to suspend class for the remainder of the spring semester, stating “The Faculty of the College formally declares its support for the national movement to end the war in Indochina, to end the vilification of youth by public authorities, and to insure justice and full constitutional freedoms for Americans of all races”.


In the weeks following the suspension of classes, students organized daily talks, teach-ins, rallies, and draft counseling.  Our Moratoria Papers collection contains the Student Assembly Bulletin, a schedule of on-campus events published daily with announcements about progression of the national strike.  The Moratoria Papers also include screen-printed posters and single page sheets of information for strikers, including facts about the Vietnam War, types of tear gas used by police, medical aid advice, and a flyer titled “Pocket Lawyer” informing students of their legal rights.

00000002 00000001More information on Amherst College’s participation in the national strike of May 1970 can be found in the Moratoria Collection, General Files (Political Activity and Activism), Photographs Collection, and other sources in the Archives and Special Collections.

Double Introduction and Visual Research

As discerning blog readers may have noticed, this post was written by a brand-new staff member. Hello! My name is Angela DiVeglia, and I’m PPL’s new Curatorial Assistant.

Now that the personal introduction’s out of the way, let me introduce an awesome new weekly happening in Special Collections: Art//Archives Visual Research Hours.

These open hours will take place Tuesdays from 10:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m., beginning this coming Tuesday, April 28th, 2015.

Art//Archives is a time for artists, creative workers, designers, illustrators, printers, curious bibliophiles, and anyone else interested in doing visual research in our vast collections of illustrated books, manuscripts, and periodicals. These weekly hours allow time for creative exploration and special collections browsing time.

Here’s a cool postcard advertising our open research hours:


I can sense your burning question, blog readers: “Why?”

First, our collection is a fantastic and free resource for local artists and designers. We’re fortunate to be located across the street from AS220, and within vigorous spitting distance of other great arts organizations, galleries, printshops, and graphic design firms, not to mention the Rhode Island School of Design. Being situated in a city that bills itself as The Creative Capital naturally means working closely with the arts community.

Second, we know that methods of visual research often differ significantly from methods of informational research. People often come to Special Collections hoping to unearth a highly specific piece of information—say, a letter mentioning a long-ago ancestor, or a sample lunch menu from a whaling ship—while visual researchers often want to browse a broad sampling of materials in search of the surprising, the inspirational, the beautiful, or the fascinatingly strange. Serendipitous encounters generally don’t happen in collections with closed, non-browsable stacks, but we want to make that kind of discovery-based experience possible.

Third, we want to create a comfortable setting for people who may not have done much, if any, archival or historical research before. Visiting Special Collections shouldn’t feel daunting; we want to foster a time and space when one can drop in, sans appointment, to explore some of our materials. Think of it as a once-weekly, enormously extensive visual encyclopedia.

To sweeten the deal, each week we’ll pull a selection of interesting illustrated books pertaining to a loose theme. We’re also happy to pull other books related to people’s specific interests.

Now I sense your next burning question: “How can I attend the Art//Archives Visual Research Hours?”

All you have to do is come to Special Collections on a Tuesday between 10:30 and 1:00. You don’t need a scholarly recommendation; you don’t need proof of citizenship, membership, or any other type of –ship. All you need is yourself, clean hands, an ID (to register on your first visit), and a sketchbook/ camera/ laptop if you want to take notes or photos. Then you’re free to hang out in our reading room with amazing old books (and amazing fellow artists).

Hope to see you on Tuesday! This week’s theme will be ANIMALS.



Florida High

Demonstration School
Demonstration School

We are happy to announce that a new exhibit is on display in the Norwood Reading Room on the history of the Florida State University Schools, also known as Florida High.

In 1851 the Florida Legislature voted to establish two institutes of higher learning: the East and West Florida Seminary. The Legislature required the cities which would receive state funding for these seminaries to provide the infrastructure and startup money. In order to compete for the West Florida Seminary, Tallahassee built a school. Finished in 1855 and located near the present day Westcott building, the school was commonly known as the Florida Institute.

HPUA Student Assistant, Colin Behrens, works on installing exhibit
HPUA Student Assistant, Colin Behrens, works on installing exhibit

The Florida Institute was the earliest incarnation of Florida High. The Florida Institute educated both college and high school aged students. Since the Florida Institute became the West Florida Seminary in 1857, Florida High has been an integral part to the history of FSU.

In 1954 the high school department got its own building on campus, designated as the Florida State University School (FSUS or Florida High). Despite the moniker “Florida High,” FSUS was created to be a school for grade levels K-12. FSCW and FSU students in the Education program interned at Florida High until Florida High left the campus in 2001.

In an effort to make learning fun, the teachers would often assign creative projects. The students created newsletters and journals for their various clubs and classes. Florida High also had its own yearbooks: The Flahisco, which was published in the 1940’s, and the Demon’s Flame, which was published in the 50’s and 60’s.

In 2001, Florida High left the main FSU campus and moved to its own campus. Despite its change of location, Florida High maintains its close connection with FSU. Research performed by FSU faculty and graduate students largely takes place at FSUS. Research is a constant presence at FSUS, and important findings have been found in the fields of Literacy Acquisition and Mathematical Pedagogy.

Florida High jacket and pennant
Florida High jacket and pennant

The Florida High Exhibit can be viewed Monday – Friday 10am – 6pm in the Norwood Reading Room, located on the second floor of Strozier Library.

Colin Behrens is a student assistant in the Heritage Protocol & University Archives. He is currently working on a BA in Classics.

Honored by the United States Postal Service


Since 1898 the US Postal service has issued many stamps honoring the American Indian community. Among those is a series of five 32c stamps based on photographs of the American Indian Dance Theater shot by Theo Westenberger. A print run of 27,850,000 stamps was released on June 9th 1996.

Westenberger worked with the dance group in 1992. She asked the dancers to perform in a controlled studio environment so she could use high speed strobe lighting to freeze the action and capture the drama of each dance. Four of the five dances depicted are pan-Indian dances, performed extensively by many tribes in competition and at pow-wows. These are the Butterfly Dance or Fancy Shawl Dance, the Hoop Dance, the Fancy Dance and a Traditional Dance. The last two are identified by the elaborate beaded costumes that are worn with warbonnets or feather headdresses. The fifth dance is the Raven Dance which is more closely associated with the coastal tribes of the North West. The photo shoot also included a number of other tribal dancers and other dances.

Smithsonian Magazine, February 1993, featured one of the images on the cover; others illustrated an article in that same issue. The original transparencies, a pristine sheet of stamps and a first day cover are part of the Theo Westenberger Photographic Archives at the Autry National Center of the American West.MSA_25_239


Theo Westenberger Archives, Autry National Center, MSA.25.239

Encuentros en Archivo: Se presentarán documentos musicales raros y antiguos que se conservan en el Archivo de la Veneranda Fábrica del Duomo en Milán

El Coro de la Catedral protagonista en “Encuentros en Archivo” 21/04/2015

Lunes, 20 de abril la tercera ronda de la serie dedicada a la Institución de la música: se presentarán documentos raros

Retorna “encuentros en Archivo”, una serie de eventos para compartir con el público los documentos preciosos y antiguos que se conservan en el Archivo de la Veneranda Fábrica del Duomo en Milán. Tema del tercer evento, programado para el lunes 20 de abril a las 18, en el Salón de Actos del Archivo Milanes de Veneranda Fabbrica (Plaza del Duomo), será “Archivo y la capilla musical de la Catedral:. Una tradición sigue viva”. El relator será Don Claudio Burgio, el actual Director del Maestro de Capilla, que será presentado por el arquitecto. Giovanni Battista Sannazzaro y Roberto Fighetti. Durante el encuentro también esta prevista una ejecución. 

El Coro de la Catedral de Milán, fundada en 1402, es la institución cultural más antigua de Milán y entre las más antiguas del mundo. Durante el encuentro se presentarán los documentos musicales raros, incluyendo el primer documento que acrediten el supuesto – el 03 de septiembre 1402 – el cantante de Matteo da Perugia, llamado, con un sueldo de 4 florines al mes, para honrar a los días de fiesta en la Catedral “Con el canto dulce y meliflua y biscanti” y para educar a algunos niños porque cantar en la Catedral.

El Coro de la Catedral ha marcado todos los momentos importantes de la Catedral y de la historia de Milán, lo que permite a decenas de generaciones competir con el monumento a través del lenguaje universal de la belleza y de grandes maestros como Franchino Gaffurio, Palestrina y Johann Christian Bach. Don Claudio Burgio hablará en la reunión explicando la actividad compositiva de algunos de los maestros más importantes de sus predecesores y presentará una breve colección de composiciones sagradas tomadas del vasto repertorio almacenada en Archivo. Durante la presentación de los cantantes del coro de Milán interpretarán composiciones musicales en vivo Gaffurio, Grancini, Fioroni y Migliavacca con la intención de certificar una tradición todavía viva, en constante compromiso al servicio de la Catedral de Milán.

19 de abril 2015 | 17:07


Carta de soldado senegales luego presidente de Senegal encontradas en Archivo Nacionales Franceses

Las cartas olvidadas de Leopoldo Sédar Senghor 21/04/2015

Todo comenzó en el verano de 2010, cuando un historiador alemán, Raffael Scheck, profesor en Colby College en los Estados Unidos, ha purgado en los archivos nacionales franceses el manuscrito de un soldado senegalés. 

Léopold Sédar Senghor (abajo a la izquierda) fue uno de los internos del campo Chauvinerie.

 © archivos Gérard Bosio, reprod. Fot. Cornelis van Voorthuizen

“Los cuarteles (…) mal nos protegen del frío cuando el termómetro está bajo cero. Los enfoques (…) están llenas de barro, donde es fácil hundirse 30 centímetros. Hay ni los lavabos ni duchas “, escribió el anónimo, que describe las condiciones de detención de los soldados negros encarcelados durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Poitiers, en el Camp Chauvinerie, descubiertas dos años antes en una excavación arqueológica. 

Pero el investigador no se contenta con este hallazgo, aprovechado por estas rarezas: cuando otros hostigadores son analfabetas, es educado y hasta profesor de gramática asociado en un instituto parisino. Sólo que esta vez, agregado de Senegal, Francia considerará una sola: el futuro académico Léopold Sédar Senghor. Estudiante en la Sorbona, un ciudadano francés desde 1933 y enviado a la guerra como fusilero en un regimiento de infantería colonial, fue encarcelado primero en junio de 1940 en La Charité-sur-Loire, en la que “se escapa de ejecución puesto delante de él debido a su color, salvado por un oficial francés triunfo consciente honor militar “, dice el historiador Jean Hiernard. 

Él vaga de un campamento a otro antes de ser internado en octubre de 1940 a Chauvinerie, donde permaneció hasta noviembre de 1941. Es aquí, en medio de sus “hermanos negros”, senegaleses, también del Caribe, Madagascar, Indochina que el concepto de “negritud”, acuñado antes de la guerra con su amigo Césaire tendrá sentido. 

Entre ellos se encuentran el futuro siervo guadalupano Guy Tirolien, el hijo del gobernador de Chad, Félix Eboué y el lingüista austriaco Victor Pichl, quien grabó sus eruditos diálogos y canciones cantadas por francotiradores durante las vigilias de la noche. “De esta experiencia nació la colección de poesía” Hosts Negras “que Pichl transmitirá al Pompidou clandestinamente”, añade Jean Hiernard. 

Atrapados en la ayuda a la Resistencia delito, Senghor serán  enviados a un campo de represalia, cerca de Burdeos. “Donde él será lanzado para simular una enfermedad tropical que fue emocionante alemanes adquirieron higienismo”, añade. Renovado en febrero de 1942, se va a recuperar su instituto parisino, antes de ser elegido presidente de Senegal.


Google permite a todos los usuarios descargar historia de su investigación en línea

Historial de búsqueda detallada de Google ya está disponible para su descarga 21/04/2015

El Washington Post informó que el gigante de Mountain View ahora permite a todos los usuarios a descargar la historia de su investigación en línea. Una característica disponible desde enero de permitir que todos los usuarios tengan acceso a una detallada historia mucho más que todas las visitas que hicieron en las páginas de Google.

Andrea Fradin explique:
“Si no se ha tomado la molestia de desactivar este servicio, podrás ver toda la investigación que ha realizado en los últimos días y meses. En el motor de búsqueda convencional, sino también en Google Imágenes, mapas, videos, etc. Acompañado por el tiempo que haya pulsado “enter” para realizar la llamada investigación. Y pequeños gráficos que ilustra la intensidad de sus páginas de asistencia de Google “.

Según el Washington Post, esta característica fue revelado por un blog la semana pasada, con todos los detalles de cómo acceder a ellos. Cada usuario tiene acceso a la final con un detalladas estadísticas precisas históricos sobre la fecha y la hora exacta de la visita en un sitio específico. Todavía va un poco más lejos, los usuarios pueden descargar toda la historia en su totalidad. A continuación, Google le enviará un correo electrónico con todos los detalles de sus archivos en archivos JSON conexión.

Lanzado en 2011 por Google, esta función es útil, según Venture Beat, la capacidad de transferir datos a Google varios otros servicios como YouTube, Calendar, Google +, Picasa, Gmail, etc. Los riesgos también han sido expuestos por la Electronic Frontier Foundation en 2012:

“Este tipo de datos puede significar cosas muy íntimas sobre nosotros, nuestra orientación sexual a nuestros problemas de salud. Y todos estos datos pueden ser requeridos por el tribunal (o hackeado, si los almacena en su disco duro, así que ten cuidado). “

Pero todos los usuarios de Internet también tienen la opción de activar o no esta función siguiendo las instrucciones en este enlace.

The Golden Age of the Carnegie Hall Studios

In the 1960s, a number of New York City’s historic buildings were slated for demolition. Pennsylvania Station was demolished in 1963 to much public outrage, and the original Ziegfeld Theatre followed a few years later. In 1960, Carnegie Hall was threatened with a similar fate when the planned construction of Lincoln Center put the future of the concert hall in jeopardy.

Violinist Isaac Stern’s successful campaign to save Carnegie Hall is legendary. This episode of New York: A Portrait in Sound was produced at a unique time, after the City of New York purchased Carnegie Hall as result of Stern’s 1960 campaign, but before the formation in 1965 of the New York City Landmark Commission, which would honor Carnegie Hall with protective landmark designation in 1967.

The music hall was erected in 1891, and while it was recognized as a world class concert hall, it quickly became clear to Andrew Carnegie, who financed the project, that an alternative source of income would be necessary. The two tower additions were completed in 1894 and 1896 to serve as housing and studio spaces for working artists, with the intention of bringing in additional revenue.

These studios, 170 in all, populated the hall with a lively community of artists. The towers made for a more affordable artistic lifestyle, providing a space where an artist could comfortably both live and practice their craft. There was a ballet studio, which you can hear in the above clip, neighboring an author’s club just down the hall that Mark Twain used to frequent. Painters, poets, photographers and composers lived and worked there.

You can listen to the raw interviews with tenants here, which are featured in the clip above.  

In 2007, the city began the process of eviction for the hall’s remaining studio tenants as the Carnegie Hall Corporation moved forward with plans to construct education facilities in their place, and in 2010 the last few residents – poet Elizabeth Sargent, and photographers Bill Cunningham and Editta Sherman – were displaced.

The Resnick Education Wing, which occupies the space these artists once inhabited, is in its inaugural year. Its 24 practice rooms and teaching studios opened in September of last year with the mission of cultivating young talent and their love of classical music.

Much like the famed Hotel Chelsea, also a designated landmark, the Carnegie Hall studios are no longer the mecca for great resident artists they once were, but Carnegie Hall continues to support young artists.

An Exclusive Unearthed Track by Blues Legend Reverend Gary Davis

In 1966, in the midst of the blues revival, Reverend Gary Davis was arguably at the height of his fame.  “Height” being a relative word here – the average American music fan, then or now, probably wouldn’t recognize his name. But Davis was a hugely influential figure, as evidenced by his effect on the pop and rock music of the 60s: Bob Dylan recorded one of his songs, so did Peter Paul & Mary. The Grateful Dead were big fans, and Jorma Kaukonen of Jefferson Airplane still plays a lot of Davis’s songs to this day.  So the discovery in the WNYC archives of this 1966 studio visit is definitely one to take a closer look at.   

Reverend Gary Davis Live on WNYC

Reverend Gary Davis, who also recorded as Blind Gary Davis, was in fact an ordained Baptist minister (and blind), from the Piedmont region of South Carolina. He grew up playing the distinctive style of Piedmont blues and taught one of that style’s best-known figures, Blind Boy Fuller. But he moved to New York in the 50s, and for the next two decades, a series of (mostly white) guitarists beat a path to his door, to study the blues and to occasionally hear a little sermon.  Dave Van Ronk, David Bromberg, Stefan Grossman… the list of his students is long and littered with well-known folk and blues musicians.  At least one of whom confided that it was Mrs. Davis who was the more likely one to lay a little ol’ fashioned religion on you.  The good reverend seems to have preferred sharing a drink and a song.

Anyway, this 1966 in-studio performance is notable for several reasons: first, the hosts. Henrietta Yurchenco will be a familiar name to fans of the WNYC Archives; she helped bring Lead Belly, Woody Guthrie, and others to a larger audience through WNYC in the early 1940s.  And the folk musician Dave Sear, who would later go on to host the long-running Folk Music Almanac on WNYC, appears here as her co-host.

And second, there are the songs.  Of the five tunes played here, two are hits; two more will be known to Davis fans; but the opener is a song that for the life of me I cannot identify, even after a Google search. 

UNITED KINGDOM - JANUARY 01: KEELE FOLK FESTIVAL Photo of Rev Gary DAVIS, Reverend Gary Davis performing at the Keele Folk Festival (Photo by Brian Shuel/Redferns)

There is very little chat – the session sounds like it has been edited with a heavy hand.  Davis launches into one of those moralizing, early gospel-tinged numbers where the different verses are actually mostly the same; usually a different first line in each verse leads to a repeat of the first verse’s conclusion.   The Carter Family did a lot of this kind of singing – a song like “Sow ‘Em On the Mountain,” for example. 

The second song is “There’s Destruction In This Land,” also known as “There’s Destruction On That Land.”  Davis had a large repertoire, and this is one of a fairly large number of tunes from the country-ragtime tradition.  Davis’s two-fingered picking technique is especially impressive in these songs. 

After that comes one of the hits, though perhaps not one associated with Rev. Gary Davis.  “You Got To Move” is a traditional blues that was popularized by Mississippi Fred McDowell, and then made famous by the Rolling Stones. 

Next is “Children of Zion.”  While the song moves along at a good clip, there’s a dark, almost ominous quality to the chord sequence.  One of the things I’ve always loved about Davis’s songs is the elliptical but ecstatic imagery he often uses.  In “The Light Of This World,” for example, he sings: “got fiery fingers/got fiery hands/when I get to heaven I’m gonna/play in the fiery band.”  Here, after wondering in the first verse where his mama went, he sings: “she’s somewhere sitting in glory”  (or in this performance, it sounds like he’s saying “she’s somewhere around in glory,” which is even more unusual and ecstatic.)

His grand finale is “Samson and Delilah” – also known as “If I Had My Way.”  Originally associated with Blind Willie Johnson, Rev. Gary Davis’s version reached a much wider audience when it was covered by Peter, Paul & Mary in 1962. 

Listening to the rough-hewn sound of Davis’s voice and his surprisingly intricate guitar technique is, for me, something that never gets old.  I learned a couple of Davis’s songs, including “The Light Of This World” and “Death Don’t Have No Mercy,” from the playing of Jorma Kaukonen on one of my New Sounds Live concerts some years ago.  The former took a bit of time to work out, and I was pretty damn pleased with myself for eventually getting it.  I later told Jorma I’d figured out how to play his arrangement and he immediately said “oh, I’m almost embarrassed at how easy that one is.” 

Oh well.  We can’t all be guitar geniuses.  But listen here to a man who truly was.  

Explorers digitizing Greensboro history

By Stephen Catlett

The UNCG-Hayes-Taylor IMLS Sparks! Ignition grant has gotten off to a great start since we officially launched to the public on February 21. Mayor Pro Tem Yvonne Johnson generously agreed to help kick off our project that day, and within a week we had a select group of seven students from the Y’s Achievers program. 

These DGH Explorers (Digitizing Greensboro History) have already participated in a lively history conversation with Community Historian Linda Evans of the Greensboro Historical Museum on March 7. And since then have received training on the use of digital cameras and scanners. We started with the actual capturing of some of the Y’s own history, digitizing photographs and newspaper clippings on April 4.

Our first “In The Field” session took place last night (April 16) at the law office of local lawyer Richard Gabriel, of Gabriel Berry Weston and Wells. Mr. Gabriel’s father, George, operated two small grocery stores on East Market and East Washington Streets after 1940. Richard worked closely with his father and mother and has wonderful stories and information about East Greensboro, especially the vibrant business community as it existed before Urban Renewal destroyed it in the 1960s and 1970s. His father was well respected in the community, especially with the Bennett College students. They autographed Mr. Gabriel’s personal copies of the Bennett yearbook, thanking him for his generosity, especially in providing store credit. As one student wrote: “Without your store I would have gone hungry plenty of nights.”

We plan to capture more history in the next two months, but it has been especially gratifying working with these young students, who are very inspiring.

The New York City Landmarks Law: Saving the Past for Half Century

The Landmarks Preservation Commission was born 53 years ago this week, on April 22, 1962 with Municipal Art Society of New York (MAS) member Geoffrey Platt as Chairman. However, it was not until Mayor Wagner signed the Landmarks bill into law three years later, on April 19, 1965 that the Commission became a city agency with legal authority. When Platt sat down for this interview with Seymour Siegel on WNYC’s City Close-up in November 1964, the Commission was, in Platt’s words, “purely an advisory body.”

Of course, the history behind this groundbreaking legislation—the first historic preservation law of its kind—goes back many more years. Contrary to popular belief, the preservation movement and the desire for Landmarks legislation were not born out of the destruction and rubble of the original Penn Station. As far back as 1951, Municipal Art Society of New York (MAS) President Edgar I. Williams declared to the MAS membership:

“The accumulated evidence that New York’s architectural and historic monuments must be protected by direct action suggests that the Municipal Art Society take the lead in nominating structures for preservation. The controversy over Castle Clinton made many civic-minded citizens aware of the need for intelligent protection of such monuments, and more recently the destruction of the Rhinelander houses, St. Nicholas’ Church and the Ritz Carlton building have emphasized the desirability of an immediate expression of opinion on this important subject.”[1]

By 1953, through its Committee on Historic Sites, Monuments, and Structures and the work of its members, MAS assembled an Index of Architecturally Historic Buildings that it sought to preserve. The following year, MAS began to survey and document all of the buildings and structures on its Index.

Architectural historian and MAS board member Agnes Gilchrist spearheaded the project to document the MAS Index. In addition, at a board meeting in September 1955 she “advanced the suggestion of a ‘walking tour’ for the members of the Society” to educate and raise awareness about historic buildings. The first MAS walking tour occurred in 1956, the same year that the New York State Legislature passed the “Bard Act,” named after the lawyer, curmudgeon, and MAS board member, Albert S. Bard. “The Bard Act provided localities across New York State the authority they needed to regulate the built environment based on aesthetics, and was the New York State legislation that enabled the creation of a New York City Landmarks Law.”[2]

In January 1957 MAS published the first edition of New York Landmarks: Index of Architecturally Historic Structures in New York City that expanded on its 1951 list.

This eventually grew into the 1963 publication of Alan Burnham’s New York Landmarks: A Study and Index of Architecturally Notable Structures in Greater New York, published by Wesleyan University Press under the auspices of the Municipal Art Society. With the razing of Penn Station as a background, the book helped rally the preservation movement in New York City. It is also the book Platt cites and uses as a reference during the City Close-up interview.

It’s hard to remember today—with 1,347 individual landmarks, 117 interior landmarks, and 10 scenic landmarks across the five boroughs—that at the time of its passage, New York’s landmarks preservation law was a truly revolutionary concept. It would serve as a model for similar laws that were enacted around the country and forever change the way cities treat historic spaces.


[1] See Anthony Wood’s Preserving New York: Winning the Right to Protect A City’s Landmarks (Routledge, 2007)

[2] For more information, see the NY Preservation Archive Project.

¿Te perdiste nuestro webinar sobre “Documentos adjuntos a un registro bibliográfico en Koha”?, no importa, nos gusta mostrar nuestro conocimiento en abierto, aquí lo tienes

¿Te perdiste nuestro webinar sobre “Documentos adjuntos a un registro bibliográfico en Koha”?, no importa, nos gusta mostrar nuestro conocimiento en abierto, aquí lo tienes

Documentos adjuntos a un registro bibliográfico en Koha Si no pudiste participar en directo, te facilitamos el acceso al contenido íntegro de la sesión impartida por Julieta Alcibar. El objetivo de este webinar fue mostrar el enfoque de las actividades de procesos técnicos en Koha, específicamente las relacionadas con a la edición de portadas de [...]

Consultores Documentales

Indecisión en la ubicación del Archivo Nacional aleman

Futuro incierto para los Archivos Nacionales 16/04/2015

En respuesta a una solicitud del diputado del parlamento Octavie Modert el Ministro de Cultura Maggy Nagel cuestionó el sitio Belval para los Archivos Nacionales.

Los problemas de estabilidad en el campamento de los Archivos Nacionales en el aparcamiento Saint-Esprit … (Foto: Diario / Hervé Montaigu)

. … Y de rociadores próximo al tesoro nacional (Image: Diario / Hervé Montaigu)

Después de que había llovido violentamente hace unas semanas, los locales provisionales de los Archivos Nacionales en Bartreng estaban bajo el agua. Por un pelo, no se perdieron recursos preciosos. Sin embargo, una solución a un nuevo archivo aún no está a la vista. Por más de diez años se discute un nuevo sitio para el Archivo Nacional; la corriente está a punto de reventar.

Donde quiera se almacenan los posibles documentos. (Foto: Diario / Hervé Montaigu)

En 2002, el entonces gobierno decidió un nuevo archivo en Esch / Belval. Recientemente el ministro de Cultura Maggy Nagel, sin embargo, había puesto la Belval en tela de juicio, y dio a entender que el nuevo archivo, podría ser ubicado en la capital.

En Bartreng sin embargo, hay condiciones de almacenamiento adecuadas. (Foto: Diario / Hervé Montaigu)

Decisión Secuestrada

La izquierda huele en el cuestionamiento del sitio Belval un cálculo político de DP-Ministro de Cultura. Maggy Nagel está actuando en un vestíbulo con funcionarios retrógradas de presión, escribe Frank Jost, miembro de la Oficina de Coordinación de la izquierda. Para la izquierda no es aceptable, ya que con la memoria nacional, es decir, los Archivos Nacionales son manejados, dijo en una conferencia de prensa convocada por la “La Izquierda”, el miércoles claridad del Ministro.

El primer proyecto, fue secuestrado por el gobierno de entonces CSV LSAP. En ese momento, siempre el nuevo archivo debía incluir 28.000 metros cuadrados, a 180 kilómetros de archivo. Todo debía ser construido sobre rasante: archivos, oficinas y Lesesäale. Costo previsto: € 87,7 millones. El nuevo archivo en caso contrario a los dos altos hornos.

Debajo de la tierra

2009, un nuevo proyecto fue desarrollado (a un costo de € 38,08 millones), debido a que la ubicación prevista originalmente sólo tiene la mitad disponible, una parte del dispositivo era en este plan, Que se ubicará debajo de la tierra: las oficinas y salas de lectura deben ser construidas sobre el suelo. El archivo planificado, se redujo a 90 kilometros y se debe colocar bajo tierra.

Actualmente cuenta el Archivo Nacional con más de 45 kilómetros de documentos. Incluso con los planes de 90 km, sigue siendo el espacio para crecer. Pero este proyecto fue desechado. Una respuesta clara a la pregunta de por qué y cómo iba a ir al director Josée Kirps por el entonces ministro de Honore MODERT no recibió respuesta.

Argumentos a favor de ambos sitios

La respuesta de la ministra de Cultura – el proyecto de un nuevo archivo debe ser revisado – limpiar tiene mucho sentido dijo el diario Kirps. Por un lado, es de hecho lógico que unos archivos nacionales podría encontrar su lugar en Belval, como todos los “clientes”, es decir, los estudiantes y los investigadores están todavía allí. Por otra parte, casi todos befänden “proveedor” del archivo – administrativa y judicial – están en la capital. Por lo tanto, a los Archivos Nacionales tienen sentido allí. Además, hay que tener en cuenta que un archivo clandestino no es necesariamente más barato, ya que esta agencia demanda complicados mecanísmos sobre el clima interior, dijo Josée Kirps.
Site original:

Autor: Claude Molinaro/

Fotos de los años 30 y 40 en archivos de la ciudad da impulso para explorar historia de Gütersloh en la II Guerra Mundial.

Las fotografías aéreas que documentan las bombas sobre Gütersloh 16/04/2015

Gütersloh (uma) – Cuando los soldados estadounidenses llegaron en la Pascua de 1945 a las puertas de Gütersloh en condiciones de tomar la ciudad, Rudolf Herrmann con14 años ya ha visto días de bombardeos. La guerra es ahora hace 70 años – con motivo de una exposición en Gütersloh Museo de la Ciudad.

Para mostrar la guerra de 70 años en Gütersloh se vistió un maniquí con el uniforme de un tripulaciones de los tanques estadounidenses de 1945. En orden: (de izquierda) archivista de la ciudad S. Grimm, testigo Rudolf Herrmann, director del museo, el Dr. Rolf Westheider y Renate Horsmann (equipo local). Image: Blumenstein

Rudolf Herrmann recuerda mucho, como si fuera ayer. Y Gütersloh, nacido en 1930, puede decir con claridad lo que estaba pasando en los últimos meses de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Sus experiencias y lo que ha llevado a la investigación meticulosa también tiene experiencia en este período, forman la base de la exposición “El arranque:  El final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Gütersloh “, que ahora se ha abierto en el Museo de la ciudad y hasta el 31 de mayo. En colaboración presentado Rudolf Herrmann,  Archivero de la ciudad,  S. Grimm, director del museo, el Dr. Rolf Westheider y Martin Wernekenschnieder y Norbert Ellermann juntos el espectáculo.

“Rudolf Herrmann hace que la exploración de la historia local merece como ninguna otra”, dijo el director del museo, el Dr. Rolf Westheider en la presentación preliminar. Originalmente, el de 84 años de edad, quien ha trabajado durante 44 años como trabajadores del ferrocarril, principalmente interesados ​​en la historia del ferrocarril en Gütersloh. La búsqueda de fotos de los años 30 y 40 en los archivos de la ciudad proporcionó el impulso para explorar la historia de Gütersloh en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Numerosas fotografías históricas con textos explicativos cortos atraen las dramáticas semanas alrededor del final de la guerra después (“The Bell”, informó el año número 70 estags detalle el 31 de marzo y 3 de abril). Particularmente revelando ocho fotografías aéreas Stephan Grimm recibió de un archivo comprimido en Washington. En el pasado-presente-comparación con pinturas actuales revelar dónde y cuánto la Dalkestadt fue alcanzado por las bombas aliadas. Por lo tanto, la tierra cultivable estaba salpicado alrededor de los agricultores Ibrügger entre la carretera y el Verler Dalke después de fuertes bombardeos del 14 de marzo 1945 con cráteres, mientras que los edificios residenciales adyacentes se salvaron. A partir de 1951, había casas construidas para los soldados británicos. Rudolf Herrmann dice: “Han encontrado toneladas de municiones sin detonar.”

Una grabación de 3000 metros sobre el nivel del mar muestra la estación el 24 de marzo de 1945, y decenas de cráteres de bombas alrededor de la rotonda intacta. Él, su objetivo real había perdido los Aliados.

Una y otra vez dar aniversarios alrededor de la Segunda Guerra Mundial llevó a la documentación con el material de los Gütersloh Archivo Municipal. “Es un reto hacer el mismo fondo de ojo es siempre algo nuevo”, dice archivero S. Grimm. Cuanto más se contenta con los resultados de ojo de buey en los Archivos Nacionales en Washington.

Grimm ha tenido el conocimiento de que en los Estados Unidos un corresponsal de guerra tenía el enfoque de los Aliados con diligencia documentado, fotografías históricas de Gütersloh desde la época de los años de la guerra y la tripulación requerida y de lugares específicos, como la estación de tren. En el otoño de 2014, la respuesta es: Hay una serie de fotos disponibles. De diez copias ofertadas concretas Grimm finalmente compró ocho para un total de más de 200 dólares. “Cuando se encuentra un patrocinador que podría volar sobre usted y los Archivos Nacionales de Washington, documenta las muchas otras perspectivas”, dice Grimm.

Nuevo material trajo el cartero y totalmente sorprendente para la exposición Stephan Grimm hasta principios de marzo: Un austriaco, cuyo difunto padre con más de 20 años atrás había servido como cabo en la compañía de aeródromos en Gütersloh, legó a los archivos de la ciudad una caja de fotos antiguas. Algunos ahora se pueden ver en el museo de la ciudad. Muestran, por ejemplo, el campo de aviación con la quema de la aeronave después del ataque el 30 de marzo de 1945, y el comandante de la base aérea, el teniente coronel Ulmer, durante un discurso ante el combate de aviones JU 88a

Ahora puedes escribir a mano en tu movil con la nueva aplicación de Google

Google lanza una app Android que interpreta la escritura a mano 16/04/2015

Google Handwriting Input es la nueva app que presentó Google para su plataforma Android que funciona con o sin conexión a Internet y puede ser utilizada en 82 idiomas diferentes

Luego de su instalación, la aplicación requiere que el usuario realice la descarga del idioma que desea en su teléfono inteligente, para luego configurar por defecto cuando requiera su utilización.

La entrada de escritura a mano de Google también admite cientos de emojis, más conocidos como emoticones, por lo que el usuario de la aplicación puede expresarse en cualquier aplicación de Android.

Google Handwriting Input corre sobre el sistema operativo Android en la versión 4.0.3 o superiores, y para activarla en su teléfono o dispositivo móvil, el usuario debe elegir la opción de “método de entrada” al abrir cualquier aplicación que requiera el ingreso de texto, como mensajería instantánea, correo electrónico o procesadores de texto.


The Commonwealth Games in Glasgow 2014 – A Final Tour!

Our touring Hosts & Champions Exhibition will be on display at Trinity Church, Irvine, until this Friday 17th April. In this article Jocelyn Grant, one of our Exhibition Assistants, looks at the some of the exhibition items from the Commonwealth Games 2014.

This is the final tour of the series looking at the Hosts and Champions Exhibition in Irvine, Trinity Church. Each of these tours has looked to highlight some of the iconic and exciting materials from the Commonwealth Games Scotland Archive that the Exhibition displays, and it would be remiss of me not to include the most recent and local of the Commonwealth Games; Glasgow 2014!

The Hosts and Champions Exhibition moves on to Carnoustie, Dundee this weekend, so if you would like to see this display before it ends, go now!

"Los datos son la moneda de la nueva economía…"

HGST abre con un coste optimizado, el sistema de almacenamiento de objetos escalable para el mercado de sistemas de archivo activo 15/04/2015

SAN JOSE, California (OTS) – Para los centros de datos, presupuestos estancados y los recursos limitados de TI están luchando con un enorme crecimiento de datos, anunció HGST (HGSTStorage), una compañía de Western Digital (NASDAQ: WDC) hoy estar Activo Archivo- sistema. Es un sistema de almacenamiento de objetos que puede almacenar datos fácilmente con la empresa, la celebración de disponibilidad a largo plazo y por lo tanto pueden beneficiarse de la información obtenida a partir de ella. Con 4,7 petabytes (PB) de capacidad de almacenamiento bruto en un solo 19 “42U Rack Sistema Active Archive es una llave en mano listo para su uso en el sistema de almacenamiento de objetos, los centros de datos pueden migrar fácilmente de silos de datos aislados hacia el archivo activo con la escalabilidad de la nube. Para los datos que ya no están en la fase de creación y edición y, a largo plazo, se debe mantener con fácil acceso, el sistema Active Archive ofrece sin precedentes disponibilidad, escalabilidad y simplicidad – y también es muy barato propone Con un gran avance en el costo total de propiedad. que puede reducir el costo de la típica infraestructura de caja blanca nube para que las empresas puedan almacenar más datos y recuperar obtener mejor información y en última instancia, aumentar las ranuras de sus datos.

PRESENTACIÓN DEL PRODUCTO: HGST demuestra el sistema de archivo activo en HIMSS, del 12 al 16 de abril en Chicago (números del stand HX360 M9 y M12), y en el NAB, de 13 a 16 de abril en Las Vegas (stand número SL14018) ,

“El sistema de archivo activo de HGST es parte de nuestra estrategia para apoyar a nuestros clientes con productos de mayor calidad en la ejecución de sus datos en el éxito del negocio”, dijo Dave Tang, vicepresidente senior y gerente general del Grupo de Plataformas de almacenamiento elástico en HGST. “Los datos son la moneda de la nueva economía. Con la capacidad de almacenar datos disponibles en el largo plazo para mantener en todo momento de acceder a ellos, las empresas van a generar nueva información para mejorar la productividad, tomar mejores decisiones e incluso anticiparse a la evolución en el futuro. Hemos reconocido este cambio profundo y entregado una solución que no tiene rival en la comparación de costos y beneficios, ofreciendo densidad instalación líder en la industria por rack, fiabilidad y petabytes de acceso continuo. Al invertir en software de almacenamiento de objetos y nuestro concepto único de la innovación vertical, sistema de archivos activo es ideal para apoyar a los usuarios a obtener el máximo provecho de sus datos “.

Vertical innovación como motor de la tercera plataforma de la era El concepto único de sistema de Active Archive está diseñado para satisfacer la necesidad de un rápido acceso a grandes cantidades de datos. Con la reciente adquisición de Amplidata HGST puede proporcionar software de almacenamiento de objetos modernos y proporciona la base para un sistema de almacenamiento de objetos robusto que ofrece la mejor disponibilidad de datos en la industria e incluso sobrevivió a la falta de un centro de datos completo, cuando se distribuye a través de múltiples ubicaciones. Con las unidades más avanzadas de HGST, las placas 8 TB Helioseal de la segunda generación, junto con el hardware bien integrado, coordinado y optimizado, le da a este “scale-out” el rendimiento del sistema de almacenamiento de objetos, eficiencia y escalabilidad para los centros de datos cloud públicos y privados son requeridos. Con su combinación de eficiencia energética líder en la industria de alrededor de un vatio por TB y un precio que supera los precios de caja blanca, el sistema proporciona un gran avance en el costo total de la aquí en comparación con los sistemas de almacenamiento de objetos comerciales de código abierto alternativa y por 50 a 70 son ciento menor. Debido a la estrecha, sistema de integración continua ofrece un aumento HGST a 3 o incluso 5 veces la eficiencia y densidad de energía en comparación con otras soluciones escalables horizontalmente y un aumento de 10 veces en comparación con las ofertas tradicionales del sistema de almacenamiento.

El sistema de archivo activo de HGST es por su principio de simplicidad en la Escala, único. Nunca ha sido tan fácil y económico a escala en incrementos de petabytes. Las empresas pueden centrarse en el crecimiento de los ingresos, más que en la gestión de los recursos de infraestructura de nuevo. El sistema de archivo activo de HGST es un plug-and-play habilitado, skalierendes horizontales S3 conformes objeto del sistema de almacenamiento. Sólo requiere conexiones de red y de energía para cada rack con el fin de estar listos para su uso. El sistema Active Archive permite una escalabilidad ilimitada, sin costosas Replizierungsbedarf. Su interfaz abierta simplifica la integración y ofrece la flexibilidad necesaria cuando sea necesario.

“Hoy HGST dio cuenta de su objetivo estratégico de ofrecer plataformas y sistemas de almacenamiento más altas”, dijo John Rydning, vicepresidente de investigación de IDC. “HGST llega en un momento importante para el mercado, quiere acelerar en la introducción de la compañía de soluciones para la tercera era la plataforma. El simple capacidad plug-and-play de una plataforma integrada de hardware y para la adquisición estratégica de software de almacenamiento de objetos basado en la nube Amplidata proporcionar una solución innovadora que satisface las necesidades del proveedor de rápido crecimiento de los servicios en la nube y la empresa de datos intensivos “.

El sistema de archivo activo de HGST ya está disponible a pedido. El sistema es ofrecido por los socios de HGST, incluyendo distribuidores, proveedores de soluciones, integradores de sistemas y fabricantes de equipos originales seleccionados. Además, en el área de Atención al cliente y soporte técnico de las diversas opciones disponibles. Para obtener más información, consulte

Siga HGST en LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, y #LongLiveData.

ESTE MENSAJE EN TWITTER COMPARTIR: HGST (HGSTStorage) dirige con bajo costo, de fácil sistema de almacenamiento de objetos escalable del mercado para #-sistemas de archivo activo: #LongLiveData

Acerca HGST

HGST, subsidiaria de Western Digital (NASDAQ: WDC), desarrolla discos duros innovadoras y pioneras, unidades de estado sólido, de clase empresarial, así como las soluciones y servicios que proporcionan los datos más valiosos almacenados en todo el mundo será archivado y gestionado de almacenamiento externo. HGST satisfacer las rápidamente cambiantes necesidades de almacenamiento de sus clientes a través de soluciones de almacenamiento inteligentes que proporcionan el máximo rendimiento a través de una estrecha integración de hardware y software. HGST fue fundada por pioneros de la tecnología de disco duro y desarrolla soluciones de almacenamiento de alta calidad para una amplia gama de segmentos de mercado, incluyendo la Empresa, Nube, Data Center, Mobile Computing, Electrónica de Consumo y de almacenamiento personal. La compañía fue fundada en 2003 tiene su sede en Estados Unidos en San José, California. Para obtener más información acerca de HGSTs HDD, SSD soluciones y software de clase empresarial, visite el sitio web de la compañía

Este comunicado de prensa contiene declaraciones a futuro, incluyendo las declaraciones relacionadas con la disponibilidad prevista de los datos de HDD y / o almacenamiento SSD productos. Estas declaraciones a futuro están sujetas a riesgos e incertidumbres que podrían conducir a una desviación significativa de los resultados reales, cambios en los mercados, la demanda, las incertidumbres relacionadas con el desarrollo, la aplicación y el tiempo de los productos basados ​​en las nuevas tecnologías y otros riesgos y incertidumbres que se enumeran en el Western Digital con las limaduras de Bolsa y Valores de EE.UU. Comisión (SEC) que hacemos, por el presente atento. Se advierte al lector que las declaraciones mencionadas reflejan sólo a partir de la fecha de esta publicación para el desarrollo futuro. HGST / WD no asume obligación alguna de actualizar estas declaraciones a futuro relacionadas con eventos o circunstancias futuras.

Un MB equivale a un millón de bytes, un GB significa mil millones de bytes, un TB equivale a 1.000 GB (un billón de bytes) y un TB equivale PB 1000, cuando se trata de la capacidad de almacenamiento. La capacidad utilizable difiere debido a las tecnologías de almacenamiento de objetos y otros factores sobre la capacidad bruta.

Simplicidad Helioseal en Escala y Long Live Data son marcas comerciales y UltraStar es una marca registrada de HGST y sus filiales en los EE.UU. y otros países. Todas las demás marcas son propiedad de sus respectivos dueños.

Siga HGST en Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+ y #HGSTStorage, #LongLiveData.

ESTE MENSAJE EN TWITTER COMPARTIR: HGST (HGSTStorage) devuelve 1 millón #HeliumHDDs extremadamente fiables para aplicaciones empresariales comunes

Contacto de prensa:
HGST Equipo de Prensa
Nymphenburg Consulting
Teléfono: 0049 89 120 21 26-83

SSEI-arca proyecto registra digitalmente 500 sitios culturales en peligro de extinción

Antes que sea demasiado tarde 500 sitios culturales en peligro de extinción se registran digitalmente. 15/0472915

Babilonia es segura, al menos de forma digital. Aunque la descomposición natural, los desastres ambientales y la destrucción de las personas deben comer lejos en sus remanentes seguirán – para la posteridad queda una imagen virtual de la urbano de cuatro mil años de antigüedad. Una organización sin fines de lucro de la California de Oakland ha digitalizado las ruinas en Irak hoy. Así como el St. Sebald, las termas romanas en White Castle y los casi 900 años de antigüedad puente Regensburg Danubio.

El recorte en los retratos Monte Rushmore de cuatro presidentes estadounidenses 
ahora existe como un modelo 3-D virtual. | © CyArk

CyArk (pronunciado “SSEI-arca”) es un proyecto. El nombre se deriva de los archivos cibernéticos en inglés, pero también hay una alusión del Antiguo Testamento en ella: arca como Noé, así Noé. Y como en la arqueología. Esta arca digital para dar cabida a los edificios históricos, fachadas y monumentos, como los modelos 3-D escala. ¿Quién sabe lo que el pueblo del futuro para empezar? Tal vez ellos recorren los sitios antiguos, incluso en paseos virtuales. Sitio CyArks actualmente ofrece acceso a aplicaciones, modelos 3-D, panoramas de 360 ​​grados y visitas virtuales….

“Nuestro objetivo principal es la exploración y archivo de bienes culturales”, dijo la portavoz Elizabeth Lee. El pragmatismo lo dice todo: sólo veces producen imágenes mientras haya todavía son originales. ¿Cómo se pueden perder tesoros rápidas de la humanidad, sólo conduce a los estragos de la SI en mente.

Desde octubre de 2013 se originó el plan para digitalizar 500 edificios dentro de los cinco años. Lo que no se ha fijado desde el principio. “Queríamos seguir respondiendo en caso de que un sitio cultural particular está en necesidad a corto plazo”, dijo Lee. Cualquier persona puede sugerir edificios históricos. Un Consejo revisa todas las propuestas y es el mejor en la lista. El panel de arqueólogos, historiadores y expertos en restauración y conservación que se sienta delante de Gustavo Araoz, presidente del Consejo Internacional de Monumentos y Sitios, que también apoya la Unesco al elegir un Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

Dieser Artikel stammt aus der ZEIT Nr. 12 vom 19.03.2015.

Qué hacer californianos, es el uso de la tecnología en cultivo puro. Por último, el fundador de la organización uno de los padres de la topografía láser, el exiliado iraquí y el ingeniero Ben Kacyra desarrollaron en los años noventa un escáner láser portátil para la medición de 3-D. Con la venta de su compañía después de la vuelta del milenio Kacyra convirtió en próspero y se volvió hacia el compromiso filantrópico de su invención. La destrucción de los budas gigantes de Bamiyán por los talibanes afganos en 2001 había alertado Kacyra. En 2009 regresó a su antiguo hogar. Y Babilonia digitalizada.

Y ahora sólo el plan 500. En el primer año CyArk alcanzó aproximadamente 150 propuestas. 80 de las cuales el Consejo puso en su lista, 50 ya se miden y se archivan. Estos incluyen arte rupestre en Somalilandia, así como el recorte de los retratos monte Rushmore de cuatro cabezas presidente de Estados Unidos. La antigua ciudad oriental Nimrud lamenta Kacyra fue, por desgracia, no ha estado entre ellos. En marzo, el IS los ha destruido. Los artefactos de la ciudad de Nínive, el IS también cayó víctima CyArk tuvo que digitalizar, sin embargo.

2015, se detectan 120 a 130 sitios culturales. Pronto un proyecto en Pakistán comienza. Junto con una universidad de Lahore CyArk medirá una serie de centros regionales. “También hemos comenzado a organizar sitios históricos temáticamente y escanear”, dijo Lee. “Sobre todo, nos centramos en, entre otros lugares de interés cultural de la trata transatlántica de esclavos.” Actualmente, se capacitó al personal en Cabo Verde.

Usted aprenderá los principios de escaneo digital: El escáner emite un rayo láser; se encuentra con el obstáculo, reflexiones se reflejan de vuelta al dispositivo. Revelar la diferencia de tiempo entre el inicio más fina de la viga y la llegada de la reflexión sobre hasta qué punto se elimina el obstáculo – 50.000 veces por segundo. Estos puntos de muestreo dan coordenadas en el espacio a partir del cual un modelos de software en tres dimensiones como compuesto por una malla de alambre de filigrana. Para capturar todos los edificios tendrán un par de días, siempre y cuando las condiciones climáticas y de iluminación son favorables y que interfieren con los grandes multitudes de turistas.

Aunque el escáner distingue varios materiales, incluyendo el vidrio y piedra. Pero la tecnología no recoge los colores originales. Mientras esto sea así, los profesionales tienen cámaras especiales en su equipaje. No es que una vez que debe convertir el viajero de datos del futuro por un pasado incoloro.

Usted puede encontrar este artículo como un archivo de audio en el área superior bajo

Necesidad de archivar de forma sistemática los contenidos de la radiodifusión pública

Leif Kramp: contenidos públicos necesitan ser archivados  15/04/2015

La radiodifusión pública sigue siendo en gran medida abandonados a sí mismos sin archivar su contenido de forma sistemática. Sería mejor si las copias, siempre requeridas, pudieran ser entregadas como libros, a estudioso de los medios dice Leif Kramp en entrevista a Alternativamente, y como contribución se podría dar difusión a una parte del archivo. Por lo tanto, la accesibilidad del contentenido mejoraría. La cadena pública, vería la forma de hacer más accesibles los programas ya emitidos , tales como archivos en línea abiertas, libres. Estas aseveraciones son realista?

Foto: Kathrin Brunnhofer

Leif Kramp erudito, historiador y periodista de medios. Ha trabajado como coordinador de investigación de la Universidad de Bremen y miembro fundador de la Iniciativa del Patrimonio Audiovisual, que trabaja para aumentar la accesibilidad de los contenidos de la educación.

Leif Kramp: Todos están pidiendo este acceso frecuente a meseos olas ciencias para,  por ejemplo para la investigación histórico-cultural, o de otros grupos de interés para búsquedas específicas. A veces tienen que pagar un montón de dinero porque ciertos servicios de archivo son necesarios para los puntos de vista de material de archivo. Es decir, las demandas en los archivos del transmisor no van tanto desde el usuario individual que quiera tener algo privado, más bien, las expectativas están conectadas a un propósito cultural más amplio. Pero no solo la crítica por los transmisores son estas expectativas con su trabajo de archivo actual.

Leif Kramp: El público y, al menos, las principales cadenas de televisión privadas funcionan los archivos de programas profesionales, zuliefern la producción y emisión. Tienen un alcance limitado de las funciones descritas y por lo general relativamente pocos recursos. Tampoco poseen zonas de soberanía, pero con destino es por instrucciones de los departamentos que están sujetos a la gestión.

En este sentido, los archivos de la emisora deben tenerse en protección de la crítica, especialmente en el contexto de la digitalización, que requiere un gran esfuerzo técnico y humano. También hay restricciones presupuestarias. Todo esto significa, en mi opinión: mejorar el acceso necesario a los espectáculos anteriores, la emisora debe permitirlo para sus archivos. ¿Y por qué hasta el momento no lo hace la emisora ?

Leif Kramp: Por que se necesita algo más que buena intencion: comentarios de los directores y gestiones, especificaciones concretas en términos de un contrato y de los recursos financieros correspondientes. En el caso de los organismos públicos de radiodifusión, sólo el director puede decidir sobre sus recursos financieros limitados. ¿Por qué?

Leif Kramp: Se necesita una clara asignación contractual predeterminada de parte de la tasa de radiodifusión para servicios de archivos que servirán a fines culturales, especialmente la educación. Es decir, estos servicios de archivo se deben definir como la tarea de servir al público – y debe ser a priori una clara asignación de fondos para ellos. ¿Puede el remitente no hacer ahora incluso estas asignaciones?

Leif Kramp: Por supuesto que sería lo más lejos posible. Pero los fondos para el objeto principal del Archivo de la emisora – apoyar el proceso de producción – ya son lo suficientemente escasos. Por lo tanto, sería vinculante si este nuevo tipo de asignación de la contribución de la competencia legal “de la Comisión sobre las necesidades financieras de los organismos de radiodifusión” (KEF) establece y que por lo tanto fijar los transmisores de unión. De lo contrario, sólo se dejará a las agendas internas de la estación – y van en duda, de acuerdo a experimentar otras cosas antes. El director Dominik Graf dice que la estación debe pedir su propia imagen. Usted no estaría sentado en un enorme patrimonio cultural, pero fueron capaces de hacerlo accesible.

Leif Kramp: Tiene razón en cierto modo. Había en las últimas soluciones para hacer frente de manera constructiva con los problemas de acceso. Por ejemplo, en algunos casos, los científicos fueron contratados por las emisoras, luego como miembro de la emisora tuvieron un mejor acceso al material archivado. Estas u otras soluciones sólo pueden ser excepciones, pero siempre como modelo y no son alternativa adecuada. La apertura a los archivos  de la emisora no impide que se lleven a efecto los requisitos legales para los centros de medios en línea, como cuando se debe eliminar una gran cantidad de contenido después de siete días?

Leif Kramp: Por supuesto, esta obligación de Depublikation es una cuestión central la política de medios de comunicación, sí se discute desde su introducción. Pero detrás de este debate es la cuestión de que el Estado no asume ninguna responsabilidad por los archivos de la televisión y la radio. La tradición de la televisión y la radio en la mayoría de las leyes nacionales Archives – y que es la base de trabajo de archivos del sector público – no esta anclada, pero están excluidos explícitamente o no se menciona en absoluto. Para los libros, hay un deber de proporcionar una copia de la Biblioteca Nacional de Alemania. Y esto no debe ser para la televisión y la radio?

Leif Kramp: Para el depósito voluntario de las películas, el Bundesarchiv es responsable – después de todo. Sin embargo, para el patrimonio televisión y la radio, el estado no se siente responsable, aquí es la tradición en el sentido proverbial que queda a merced de las emisoras. El tipo, aunque todavía problemas, desde luego no se da incluso en su propio interés, sino un confiable acceso público es así. Así que estás a favor de la reforma de los tratados de radiodifusión y derecho de archivo?

Leif Kramp: Yo no soy uno de los que siempre llama justo después de las regulaciones. Sin embargo, para la seguridad fiable y mejora de la accesibilidad del patrimonio audiovisual, que dejan las emisoras públicas, necesita normas vinculantes, que van más allá de los compromisos. Así que debe ser un deber para la entrega a un dispositivo externo para la recogida sistemática tradición educación pública. O un requisito de la KEF de las asignaciones para fines específicos de difusión contribuciones a los archivos, junto con una clara definición de tareas, que deben hacer los archivos de la labor cultural y educativa externa. ¿Y usted piensa que también cambia para las bibliotecas de medios que se encuentran en línea, son más accesibles?

Leif Kramp: Esa es una pregunta para el diseño de la misión de los organismos de radiodifusión más allá de la programación actual: Si el patrimonio de difusión se toma en serio políticamente en su relevancia cultural, entonces hay un largo plazo o incluso permanente disponibilidad incluso contenido transmitido cerca. Esto no tiene por qué ser siempre de forma gratuita. Es crítico que aún existe una oferta, incluso a precios normales de mercado. La regla de los siete días tiene su punto de vista sobre la acción?

Leif Kramp: Eso depende de la voluntad política, sino también de las tendencias del mercado. Actualmente, la oferta de vídeo a la demanda va en aumento. Si los planes de una plataforma en línea serán coronados pero para la comercialización de los programas de los proveedores de servicios públicos, ni de éxito o los contenidos se ponen a disposición en el margen más amplio posible de otra manera, no es en última instancia el punto. Es importante que hay puntos fiables de contacto.

A Wigwam in Brooklyn

The neighborhood we now call Boerum Hill was once nicknamed Little Caughnawaga, for the growing Mohawk community that took up residence there. As the steel industry grew and the U.S. became a world leader in steel production in the early 20th century, Mohawk ironworkers came down to New York City from the Kahnawake Reservation just south of Montreal.  

In this episode of New York: A Portrait in Sound, you’ll hear voices of the Caughnawaga, singing a song of welcome and describing their work in the steel industry.

In the late 1800s, the Mohawk became well-regarded for their skill as ironworkers after helping build the Victoria Bridge over the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec. When the bridge opened, it was the longest railway bridge in the world, and it played a vital role in connecting Montreal to the U.S. market. The Caughnawaga Mohawk’s growing skills and desire for more work would bring them to all parts of the U.S., including Brooklyn, NY.

The Caughnawaga Mohawk frequented the now-closed Nevins Bar and Grill, which became known at The Wigwam and, just a few blocks away, they attended church service held in the Mohawk dialect at Cuyler Presbyterian Church. Grocery stores began carrying a specific brand of corn meal Caughnawaga used to make a traditional Indian bread, and bars began serving Montreal ales. The neighborhood transformed around them.

From 1920-1960, many Caughnawaga would split their time between the Reservation and Brooklyn as they took more and more construction jobs, and some still do today! Mohawk workers were fundamental in the building of such landmarks as the United Nations, Lincoln Center, the Empire State Building and the World Trade Center. After 9/11, Mohawk came to the site of Ground Zero to help clean up the fallen structures they had helped build and one Mohawk worker helped lower the beam that made the new One World Trade Center the tallest building in New York

You can read more about the Mohawks in Brooklyn here, as well as in this recent piece by WNYC reporter Stephen Nessen


Oficina del secretario de Distrito del Condado Hidalgo restaura expedientes con una data del 1800

Otorgan fondos para restaurar expedientes 15/04/2015

La Corte de Comisionados del Condado Hidalgo aprobó una asignación de fondos por 16 mil dólares para la oficina del secretario de Distrito, para preservar parte del archivo con imágenes y la indexación de los expedientes.

“Tenemos un contrato que revisamos cada año para preservar los archivos y tenemos que hacerlo con cuidado porque existen documentos que datan de 1800. Son muy antiguos y se gasta mucho dinero para conservarlos”, dijo Laura Hinojosa, secretaria del Tribunal.

Laura Hinojosa, secretaria del Tribunal. Edinburg, Tx.

Señaló que cada año tiene que acudir a la Corte de Comisionados para pedir dinero para hacer el trabajo de restauración y preservación. Agregó que su oficina también recauda cada año fondos para tal efecto. Actualmente hay cuatro libros completamente restaurados y se espera reparar otros cuatro más. Hinojosa manifestó que esto se tiene que hacer para conservar todos los documentos importantes del condado.

Por otro lado invitó al público en general al séptimo “Open House” de la oficina del secretario, el próximo 23 de abril del 2015, de las 9:00 a 11:00 horas, para que disfruten y vean todo los escritos antiguos. El evento es en el 100 N. Closner, primer piso de la Casa de Corte del Condado Hidalgo.

Se ofrecerán visitas guiadas, refrescos y aperitivos. Para más información comunicarse con Ricardo al teléfono (956) 289-7809.


NDC Outlines Prioritization Plan

On Friday, April 10, 2015, the National Declassification Center held a public forum, NDC Prioritization: What Secrets Do People Want to See? to discuss prioritization of its holdings as a way forward since the completion of the 351 million page backlog in February 2014.

The public forum featured remarks from the Archivist of the United States, David Ferriero, and commentary from the Director of the NDC, Sheryl Shenberger.  In her remarks, Ms. Shenberger outlined the five goals of the NDC moving forward (in no particular order):

  1. Making sure another backlog of records awaiting declassification review never accumulates at the National Archives again,
  2. Increasing public access to previously reviewed and exempted records by focusing on document-level referral review at the Interagency Referral Center,
  3. Standing up a review process for the earliest withdrawn items, particularly those withdrawn before the NDC began using a computerized data capture system in 2002,
  4. Fostering an improved and more direct relationship with researchers at the National Archives and
  5. Continuing to prioritize series of records based on researcher/government requests, the significance of the historical topic and the quality of the earlier review to provide special historical themed collections.

David Langbart, Senior Archivist, provided his thoughts on topic-based prioritization as it relates to archival processing and description.  Supervisory Archivist Martha Murphy was also a presenter, discussing how the National Archives is currently processing the remaining withheld records related to the JFK Assassination.  You can view more information about the work of the National Archives and the processing of the JFK assassination records here.

PIDB member and Acting Chair, William Leary, participated as a member of a panel discussing prioritization for declassification.  In his remarks, Mr. Leary discussed the six recommendations made by the PIDB in its 2014 supplemental report, Setting Priorities: An Essential Step in Transforming Declassification.  In this report, the PIDB advocates for a coordinated, government-wide approach to declassifying information based on those records most sought after and of most historical significance to the public.  To this end, Mr. Leary discussed the need for experts in the declassification community and requester community to work cooperatively to determine how to set priorities, acknowledging that useful models exist already, including that which drives the review of records for inclusion in the Foreign Relations of the United States series (FRUS).  He noted that ending pass/fail declassification determinations, which inevitably lead to wasteful re-reviews of records, should be a part of the adopted model for prioritization.

Mr. Leary discussed the need for improved records and information management practices.  He successfully argued that the NDC has the ability to incorporate topical declassification without compromising archival principles, including those related to provenance and the idea of original order.  Indeed, selecting topics by series as priorities is feasible, practical and in concert with archival processing.  Mr. Leary noted that this is one way, among many ways, to improve public access to high-value records, noting that agencies will need to use better risk management strategies and eliminate or severely restrict review of specific records found to have little value.  He also discussed the importance of prioritizing Presidential records as these are arguably the most complete and accurate source of information about our nation’s history and role in the world.

Mr. Leary’s remarks during the forum reflect the PIDB’s shift in focus from the quantity of records reviewed to the quality of records declassified.  Moreover, the challenges posed by electronic records and the volume of information the government now creates mean that changes in declassification processes, from a variety of standpoints, are necessary to effectively transform the system to one that is sustainable in the digital age.

To view the entire NDC public forum online, please visit  (best viewed via Chrome browser).

The panel discussion featuring Mr. Leary begins at 32:00, and Mr. Leary’s specific remarks begin at 1:17:00.

For more information about the NDC public forum and comments from the Director of the NDC, please visit the NDC blog.

Please continue to follow our blog, Transforming Classification, to learn more about the PIDB’s recommendations concerning prioritization.

Imágenes y textos borrados vuelven a la vida con luz ultravioleta en el manuscrito Negro de Carmanthen del siglo XVI

La luz ultravioleta revela rostros y versos borrados del libro Negro de Carmanthen 13/04/2015

Investigadores de la Universidad de Cambridge creen que las notas fueron suprimidas en el siglo XVI

El Libro Negro de Carmarthen contenía rostros y versos que fueron borrados de este importante manuscrito medieval del Reino Unido, el más antiguo que se conserva escrito exclusivamente en galés y que contiene algunas de las primeras referencias al rey Arturo y el mago Merlín.

Un estudio realizado por Myriah Williams, una estudiante de doctorado de la Universidad de Cambridge, mediante la combinación de luz ultravioleta y un software de edición de imágenes, ha destapadodos rostros fantasmagóricos y líneas de versos que hasta ahora habían permanecido invisibles al ojo humano. Alguien borró estos versos y estas imágenes del famoso manuscrito del siglo XIII llamado Libro Negro de Carmarthen por el color de su encuadernación y su conexión con el Priorato de San Juan el Evangelista y Teulyddog (Carmarthen).

Myriah Williams y el profesor Paul Russell, del Departamento de Anglosajones, Nórdicos y Celtas (ASNC, por sus siglas en inglés) de Cambridge, creen que fue uno de los propietarios del libro en el siglo XVI quien borró esas inscripciones que habían sido añadidas al manuscrito, según un comunicado de la Universidad. Los investigadores apuntan un posible nombre, el de un hombre llamadoJaspar Gryffyth, quien grabó su nombre en hebreo en el libro y eliminó versos adicionales, garabatos y notas añadidas en los márgenes del manuscrito.

«Lo que hemos descubierto puede ser sólo la punta del iceberg en términos de lo que podemos descubrir. El manuscrito es muy valioso y muy importante, sin embargo, todavía puede haber mucho más que aún no sabemos», destaca Russell.«Ver a estos fantasmas del pasado ha sido increíblemente emocionante», ha señalado Williams antes de añadir que los márgenes de los manuscritos contienen a menudo anotaciones de quien los leía y «pueden arrojar luz sobre lo que nuestros antepasados creían de lo que estaban leyendo». La recuperación de lo borrado en el Libro Negro podría decir mucho del pasado y de nuestra comprensión del mismo, según la investigadora.

A pesar del valor que hoy tiene el Libro Negro de Carmarthen, en su origen no fue una obra elaborada, sino el trabajo que realizó un solo escriba durante un largo periodo de su vida. En las primeras páginas se aprecia una escritura cuidada con líneas rectas, mientras que en otras partes del manuscrito, la letra se hace más pequeña y apretada.

El libro, compuesto por 54 páginas de pergamino, contiene desde versos religiosos a poemas históricos sobre héroes de leyenda como el rey Arturo y el mago Merín. Está designado como manuscrito Peniarth MS 1 en la Biblioteca Nacional de Gales, donde se conserva desde 1904, después de que fuera comprado junto a otros manuscritos por el fundador de la misma, Sir John Williams.

Control de autoridades en Koha

Control de autoridades en Koha

Ciclo de Webinar SIGB – Koha Continuamos con nuestro ciclo de webinar SIGB con el que pretendemos resolver algunas de las principales dudas respecto al uso de software libre para la gestión y administración de una Biblioteca. Próximo webinar, “Control de autoridades en Koha” El objetivo de esta sesión es mostrar la funcionalidad del módulo [...]

Consultores Documentales

Learning about the Library Profession

Dodd Hall Library, c. 1964
Dodd Hall Library, c. 1964.  See here for more information

In addition to my work as a Graduate Assistant in the Special Collections & Archives Division, I’m a full time student studying for a Master of Science in Library and Information Science at The School of Information at Florida State University.  As a Graduate Assistant, I’ve been able to apply the academic knowledge gained from my library classes to the different projects I’ve worked on as a Graduate Assistant in Special Collections & Archives.  Additionally, my work in Special Collections & Archives has given me a richer, more practical understanding of the opportunities and challenges that librarians face today.

As a graduate student, I’m gaining the knowledge needed to succeed in the library profession.  I’ve taken a number of great courses, but some of the classes that have been particularly relevant to my work in Special Collections are the following:

LIS 5703 Information Organization

This is a required course in the School of Information’s Master of Science in Information Science program, and for good reason.  After taking this course, future librarians better understand the theoretical framework for organizing and accessing information.  Much of the first half of the course focuses on the organization of various systems–such as article databases, like JSTOR, and the FSU Libraries online catalog.  Understanding how records are organized in the library catalog means that I’m better able to help Special Collections patrons find the information they need.  Sometimes patrons only have a vague idea of what they need, or a topic they’re researching and are not aware of all the resources Special Collections has to offer.  And while I might not be an expert in every area that Special Collections encompasses, as a librarian, I am able to find you the resources that that you need.

This course also introduces the concept of metadata, or “data about data.”  Understanding the administrative role that metadata plays in the access and retrieval of a resource was essential for the work I did with the Digital Library Center, in which I digitized 12 issues of The Girl’s Own Annual , and made those issues available to the broader community through FSU’s Digital Library.  You can find out more about that project from this blog post.

LIS 5472 Digital Libraries

This is an elective in the School of Information, and provides students with the guiding principles behind the construction and management of a digital library.  This course also provides students with some “hands on” experience.  Using the open source platform Omeka, students in this class create their own small-scale digital library.  There has been a lot of overlap between my classwork for Digital Libraries and the work I’ve done as a Graduate Assistant.  For my second project as a GA in Special Collections, I created an online exhibit with the platform Omeka, which can be found at

HIS 5082 Introduction to Archives

Because it is my hope to continue working in a Special Collections & Archives department after graduating, I wanted to take the opportunity to take formal coursework in archival science.  This course is offered through the History Department, and is taught at the State Archives of Florida.  My work in Special Collections & Archives provided me with a solid foundation to start with, to which this course has given me a richer understanding of the principles that guide an archivist’s work.

LIS 5511 Management of Information Collections

One major focus of this class was the Collection Development Policy, the formal document which guides a library’s collecting policies.   As a GA, one of my projects this semester has been to make an initial assessment of various rare book donations, according to FSU Special Collections & Archives procedures.  Understanding the role and purpose of a Collection Development Policy has been helpful in understanding the process for donation to cataloged item.

This is just a sample of the coursework I’ve completed for my Master of Science in Library and Information Science.  It has been a privilege to apply the knowledge I’ve gained in my classes to my work as a Special Collections & Archives Graduate Assistant.  Moreover, working as a Graduate Assistant has given me a better understanding of the practical applications of the knowledge I’ve gained.

Rebecca L. Bramlett is a graduate assistant in the Special Collections & Archives Division.  She is working on her Master of Library and Information Science at Florida State University.

“Please let this go the rounds”: Henry Otis Dwight and the Armenians, 1893-96

On April 24 Armenians commemorate the genocide of 1915. The event is marked every year, but the centenary in 2015 has particular resonance and will be widely noted.

Even so, what happened in 1915 and the years that followed was not the first time of troubles for Armenians in Turkey. The nineteenth century had seen many massacres and had ended with several years of intense conflict now known as the “Hamidian Massacres” (named for Sultan Abdul Hamid II and the troops, mostly Kurdish, he used against the Armenians).

1898-Dwight-Harrison-Griswold-OlioSince several Amherst College missionaries were in the region for decades, the Archives and Special Collections contains many eyewitness accounts of what happened during the last years of the century. Most of the missionary accounts are in fairly obvious places, in what we think of as “missionary collections.” But there was one folder in another collection that lay quietly for many years, a folder in the Harrison Griswold Dwight Papers.

Harry Dwight (1875-1959; AC 1898) was born in Turkey to a family of missionaries but was not a missionary himself. His life was a more literary one, and his papers are filled with interesting correspondence and other writings from his career. Sometime in 1941 Harry wrote his cousin Mary W. Riggs (1873-1943) to ask for a packet of letters that had belonged to his father, Henry Otis Dwight (1843-1917), an important missionary based in Constantinople who married two of the Bliss sisters, thus linking him with our Bliss-Ward family of missionaries.

Mary_Riggs-Miss-Herald-v98Mary sent the letters to Harry Dwight with a letter saying essentially, here, take them, I can’t stand to be reminded of what happened in those awful days. Her letter was short, typed, and persuasive, but most of the letters she sent Harry were in cursive, and in faded ink at that. So for several reasons (location of letters in an unexpected collection, difficult handwriting, insufficient description), and despite Mary’s urgency, the letters seem to have remained unread and untranscribed.

Riggs-Mary-env-p1 Riggs-Mary-p2

Given the centenary of the Armenian Genocide, it seemed that the letters might prove of interest or use to people interested in Armenian and Turkish history, and it would remind us too that the Armenians were being massacred in the region well before 1915. What follows below are excerpts (long enough as it is) from the transcriptions, with pdfs to the full transcriptions and a separate pdf of the originals for anyone who wants to read the letters in full and see what the manuscripts look like. A little of the punctuation has been changed, and it would be hard to claim complete accuracy in some of the names of places and people, but the transcriptions in the pdfs are otherwise unaltered and unabridged.

Henry Otis Dwight, ca. 1875

Henry Otis Dwight, ca. 1880

It’s important to note a few things about Henry Otis Dwight, who either wrote or received the letters. Turkey was home to him – he knew how to “gad about” (as he says) and how to obtain and report information. As the letters show, he was a serious man and, I think, someone who always had in mind “the big picture.” In Dwight’s case, the big picture involved protecting his “flock” (the Armenians) and the missionaries stationed precariously across a vast empire, and he feared for the safety of both groups during conflicts. In all that transpired during the years the letters cover, Dwight’s view of the situation – and the criticisms he offered – were directly connected with the impact on his larger mission. He was evenhanded: if the reader feels insulted on one occasion, he will be soothed on another. Dwight had harsh words for Turks, Kurds, and Armenians (as well as the reporter for the New York Herald), and he was self-critical too, but he was also very willing to praise when praise was due. Although he knew high-ranking leaders on all sides, he doesn’t come across as especially political, except to use the tools of politics to help his cause when he could (and often he couldn’t). He was both eyewitness and gatherer of information from other eyewitnesses, and in these letters he reveals all he knows.


The Bliss Bible House in Constantinople, H.O.Dwight's base of operations

The Bliss Bible House in Constantinople, H.O.Dwight’s base of operations

Letter of September 30, 1895:


I went over to Pera about 11, and in coming back could see that something was astir of an unusual nature. The police swarmed in the streets and on the bridge and eyed me in a very embarrassing manner. Just then a fire broke out in Beshik-tach, and it was impossible to tell whether the excitement of the people was on account of the fire or not. While I was on the bridge the Grand Vezir, Said Pasha, came along on his way to the Porte. He had evidently waited at his house until the demonstration should have time to be broken up. Aside from the multitude of police and the unusual crowd at the head of the bridge, I could not see that any great thing was taking place. After I reached the Bible House, I was told that the demonstration had occurred, and had been attacked at Nouri Osmaniye by the troops, when about twenty Armenians had been sabred by the cavalry. Shortly after, a man came in who said that he had seen two fights between Armenians and the police at the Sublime Porte. The first was at the upper door, where the ministers enter. He saw one man carried off as if dead. Later the second fight occurred at the lower door of the Porte, and there he saw two or three fall. He thought it dangerous to linger in that region and left. After the Grand Vezir reached the Porte the police began to make arrests of Armenians. They seemed to search for arms and to seize those who had anything that could be called a weapon, if only a large pocket-knife. I went out from the Bible House rather late, to go to the steamer, and saw nothing but a rather anxious look on the faces of the people. The police were everywhere but I saw no arrests made although I went the longest way to the bridge in order to observe the signs of the atmosphere. The Turks were whispering together and the Armenians were conspicuous by their absence. Many stories were afloat about the result of the fights. The Armenians are said to have killed a Turkish major who fired upon them. Tuesday, Oct. 1. The Turks at the steamer landing at Hissar were very much occupied with secret whispering, and I thought eyed me askance as I went to the steamer. There was nothing in the paper about the affair of yesterday except a bland sort of declaration that the Armenian hamals and firemen had gathered together at two or three places in the city and had been dispersed by the police, and that under the shadow of the sultan quiet was perfect in the city. There were no Armenians on the steamer and the Armenian shops in the city were mostly shut. A general hush ruled the streets. Everyone spoke in low tones and the coffee houses were deserted. The impression was of a sultry day absolutely still before a thunderstorm. I encountered a number of Softas on the streets who looked very savage and who I observed had revolvers under their long gowns. Altogether the impression of my morning jaunt in the city was not reassuring. It was evident that the Turks are angered by the affair of yesterday and are on the lookout for more trouble, or to make it. The police are patrolling the streets but only by twos, except once in a long while a mounted patrol passes of more men.

Scutari neighborhood of the Dwight and Bliss families

Scutari neighborhood of the Dwight and Bliss families (image from the Mark Hopkins Ward Papers).

…A number of our Bible House people came to me, thinking that I could do something, to beg that I would get protection for them. They were in utter terror of their lives. They say that the Softas are going to make a general massacre, and that at the same time that the police are arresting every Armenian who has anything like a weapon they are allowing the Turkish mob to buy revolvers unmolested. I found from other sources that this was true as to the purchase of revolvers. Then came word that two of the Bible House men, one a printer and the other a hamal, had been arrested and very badly beaten. Help was wanted to secure their release, for it is rumored that they are killing the prisoners in cold blood at the Ministry of Police. A few minutes later word came that Garabed Senakirinian, one of the leading Protestants of Gedik Pasha, was arrested last night and no one knows whether he is alive or dead. He was at the new Gedik Pasha chapel when some Softas came in and ordered the people to stop working in the chapel. “We are not going to allow you to have a chapel here,” they said. Garabed Eeffendi went out and spoke to the women of the congregation who have been doing watchman’s duty there while the men were at work, telling them to go inside because the Softas looked so fierce. The Softas at once went and complained to the police that he had told the women to stone them, which was false, and the police arrested him. Happily, a Turk standing by had seen the whole performance and told the police that the Softas had lied and got him released. Shortly afterward on some threat from the Softas, the police rearrested him and sent him to prison.


All these things come to me, and everyone looks to me to right all wrongs, as if I were their father or their advocate with the powers that be. They were very bitterly disappointed when I told them that I should not go to the British Embassy to present their case because it is already known, and that I did not believe that the British fleet would necessarily be summoned at once to restore order. The feeling that the appeals of these people produces is one of terrible anxiety, for the stories are heart-rending and the possibility that I might with a clearer inspiration find some way to help them is very wearing upon the nerves. It is very much as if we were in the midst of a military campaign and oppressed with the weight that belongs to the period just before the battle begins, when no one knows just what he will have to do in the next minute. It is a little curious that I have not been disturbed by a sense of fear for ourselves.

Several of H.O. Dwight's family members with with him in Constantinople well into the 1890s: Isabella Bliss, widow of Edwin Elisha Bliss (AC 1837) with granddaughters Isabel and Helen, ca. 1895.

Several of H.O. Dwight’s family members were with him in Constantinople well into the mid-1890s: Isabella Bliss, widow of Edwin Elisha Bliss (AC 1837) with granddaughters Isabel and Helen, ca. 1895.

…Last evening a man came to the Bible House in great terror, from Donjian’s shop, to say that the police had just made a raid upon the shop as a place where arms are being sold to the Armenians. Donjian is a jeweler and curio merchant, a leading member of the Y.M.C.A. and son in law to Pastor Avedis Constantian. All the antique weapons were gathered up by the police as evidence of treason and carried off with Donjian himself to the Minstry of Police. What to do for this poor fellow was the problem and we could do nothing. We concluded that at the Ministry of Police there would be someone wise enough to see that swords from the time of the Crusades and flint-lock pistols of two or three centuries ago are not arms in the sense of the law. This morning I found that he had been released and went around to his shop on my way to the Bible House to congratulate him on his escape. He was badly frightened and nervous but thankful to get off with the loss of his goods, which had been kept by the police, to the value of £20.

…Later in the day I went over to Gedik Pasha, ostensibly to call on Mrs. Newell on the occasion of her arrival from America, but really to get a clear idea of the general situation and of theirs in particular. Just before I left the Bible House, there was a rather sharp shock of an earthquake. As soon as Mrs. Newell saw me she said, “It takes an earthquake to bring you here.” I then remembered that since the earthquakes of July 1894, when I went over to see how the ladies had passed the danger, I had been only once in their house. The three ladies were in good spirits and full of pluck. They had not seen any disposition to attack their house and felt that there would be no such attack. They had seen the Softas roaming in parties of ten or more through their street, armed with revolvers, daggers, and clubs of a uniform pattern. They had heard the horrid sound of the blows of the clubs striking on the heads of the victims in the street, which they said sounded like pistol shots, and they had comforted and helped the poor women left alone in their houses by the arrest of their men. But no harm had come near them and they were not inclined to wish any help.

…. Numbers of Armenians have asked us when the fleet will be here, and I have been obliged to tell them that I am inclined to think that the rising of the Hunchagists [Armenian revolutionaries] has made its coming now impossible unless the government ceases to show the purpose to protect the people generally from the mob. The appeals of these people for advice, the terrible nature of their position, and the utter uselessness of their hoping help from me, make a combination of influences that crush me under the sense of responsibility and impotence. I feel like crying aloud, “Oh, Lord, my burden is greater than I can bear.”

Letter of October 7, 1895:


Thursday, Oct. 10. The other day Dr. Matteosian asked me what I would advise him to do about his family who are in Biryukdere. Should they stay where they are, or should they return to their Pera home? I told him that for the moment Pera is less safe than the Bosphorus because of the tendency of the Armenians at the church of the Holy Trinity to make trouble. I told him the only way was to do as I do every day – feel the pulse of the city and so judge of dangers. He said the difficulty was to get hold of the pulse. This morning he met me on the steamer and asked me how the pulse is this morning. I told him it was less violent, but that I had not yet been to the city to find out. Just then I met Mr. Dimitrof, the Bulgarian agent here, and asked him about the situation. Dr. Matteosian listened with all his ears and understood something of how I work to get the situation every day.

Certain men I know to be well informed and to be willing to tell me what they know. One of these is Mr. Dimitroff; another is the agent of the Reuter News Agency, who gives me news and I give him items that he cannot otherwise get. Then I go among the people of all classes and hear what they have to say; their experience with the police, and with the common Turks or Armenians, and their preposterous ideas on all subjects. From this it is easy to get a general notion of how the mind of the city is acting and if there is anything that seems to have special danger in it. I take pains to learn if it is known at the Embassies. What Mr. Dimitroff told me was that yesterday afternoon Said Pasha, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, called on the Austrian Ambassador, who is Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, and asked him to get the ambassador to negotiate with the Armenians about leaving the churches and going to their homes, authorizing the Ambassador to promise that none of them should be arrested by the Turks if they leave the churches. This involves a tacit admission by the Turks that the Armenians have been driven into their present position by abuse, and that therefore they are not to be punished for refusing to submit at the order of the Government. Upon this, the ambassador held a meeting at the French Embassy and decided to undertake the negotiation. This morning early the dragomen of the six Powers were sent to the city to go to the churches and advise the people to go home, promising that they will not be molested by the police. I have not been able to learn what the result has been, but I am afraid that the effort has failed. The Hunchagists are determined to keep up the demonstration until the Turks yield consent to the reformers. Today the Hunchagists went around and informed Armenians who opened their shops that they have been fined by the revolutionary committee for doing so. Several men paid considerable amounts to save their necks from the Hunchagists. All the shopkeepers received orders to close their shops on pain of death from these same revolutionists. They commonly obey meekly for they are terrified at the fear of secret assassination.

Letters from (apparently) Armenians, probably pastors or other employees of the missions:


From Arabkir
December 28, 1895

It was a great comfort that some friends escaped the fatal massacre (Nov. 6) but the five Nalbandian brothers were taken by guile to the government house. They were bound together and shot and many others in the same manner. These have been killed and that is past but many others remain in prison hungry, naked and miserable and they have no means of comfort whatever. Call, oh call for assistance. There are women who were accustomed to dress well and adorn their persons with costly ornaments now naked and miserable hunt[ing] through the ruined buildings to collect the charred wood to sell to cover their nakedness. The churches and schools have become the refuge of many refugees who wander about from morning till evening begging and they return in the evening empty-handed, hungry, weary, cold, and almost dead and they sleep on the stones. Dear friend my eyes fill, my hand refuses to move and how can I write more?

From Keghi
December 29, 1895

I have begun to distribute the £50 which you sent. But the number of the plundered is more than 10,000 of whom 5000 are in the extremest destitution. To whom will I give this £50?

From Erzingan
December 21, 1895

I received your letter with the 15£ draft but it was impossible to cash it and so I return it to you. The only way is to send money by post. As this is the case you better send directly to Kemakh anything you decide to send there.

As to your question: As far as I have been able to find out there are 15,000 persons who are in need of bread and who cry out “bread, bread.” Some have food for a month, some for two weeks. As time passes, the destitute will greatly increase. At present we are in great fear and terror. Oh, we have become wearied with this uncertain life. Every day the fear of death is upon us. We call out, “My God, my God, has though forgotten us?” The pain of this terror is very great. To live upon the earth has become a weariness. What shall the end be? If you have a word of encouragement, write us quickly.

No. 17 [Station report: H.O. Dwight’s summary of information he has received from various stations]:



Map of The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM).

Constantinople, Feb. 15, 1896

Dear Friends,

Marsovan Station, the Western Mission, and in fact the whole mission force in Turkey is grievously smitten in the death from small pox of Miss King of Marsovan on the 1st of Feb. She was a devoted Christian, skilled to work and win souls, and the Providence which calls her away brings her associates quite as much amazement as it does pain and grief.

Ramazan [Ramadan] gives occasion for some anxiety as to the preservation of the peace. There is real danger of disturbance here also which is too serious to be ignored. But it should be borne in mind by all that the Government is now evidently doing its best to prevent any further misdeeds of the character that we all know to the extent of losing our confidence in the good intentions of those we have trusted hitherto. The Government will not now connive at any outbreaks. At BITLIS the situation is not agreeable. Calumnies against Mr. Knapp have reached a point now that leads Armenians in the villages to believe him the cause of all the troubles which have overwhelmed them. The Porte wishes to try him there on definite charges. He will probably come on here under British protection for conference with Mr. Terrell, who refuses, naturally, to admit any right to try him. At AINTAB (Jan. 30) threats of massacre are continued. The wife of the pastor at Birijik and the two girl school teachers were taken by Gov’t order under escort to Aintab and delivered safely. They saw awful things. Mr. Sanders reached OURFA safely, Miss Shattuck has had Pneumonia but its better. She writes (Jan. 29) that she feels she must stay with the stricken people there, at least [for]] a time. The slaughter at Ourfa was greater than first reported. The Protestants of the Birsjik and Roumkale region have become Muslims along with the others. At Aintab there are about 3500 destitute receiving aid. At MARASH (Jan. 28) there are over 5000 receiving aid and an expectation of 20,000 more as soon as the settlement at Zeitoun question [?] opens up that region to access. At HAJIN (Jan. 29) 1500 people are receiving aid, about half of them from outside the town. SIVAS (Feb. 5) cries for more money, having learned more fully the destitution at Gurun and other places. At CESAREA (Jan. 27) Messrs. Fowle and Wingate have visited ten villages in the Gemerek region where 1000 houses will have eaten up their last grain by the end of this month. About 75 bales of clothing sent from here have reached Cesarea, and the most part have gone on to Sivas and Harpoot. At ERZROUM Mr. Chambers is crushed under the relief work, and Mr. Mac Naughton of Smyrna goes on today to reinforce Erzroum. Dr. Andrus of MARDIN telegraphs of 10,000 destitute in the Kurdish mountains, needing £2000. Mr. Peet has telegraphed promising the money. HARPOOT (Jan. 30) has about 100,000 destitute in 200 places dependent on it. Mr. Gates says he does not get time to eat, but does not mind that, if only he can be sure that he will not be told there is no more money. Up to that date Mr. Peet has received Zt. [zolota] 14,300 for relief from abroad. Besides this, £10,000 has passed through his hands from native sources.

Letter of August 26, 1896:


An Armenian shop, probably in Harpoot ca. 1910 (image from the W.E.D.Ward Papers)

An Armenian shop, probably in Harpoot ca. 1910 (image from the W.E.D.Ward Papers)

One of our Armenian neighbors at Roumeli Hissar was in the street back of the custom house in Stamboul when the Kurds were rushing out in pursuit of the fleeing Armenians. He sprang into the shop of a Turk who hid him. Soon after a Jew also took refuge in the shop and the Turk hid him, but the mob hunted him out. The Jew begged for mercy, explaining that he was an innocent Jew, but the ruffians said that Jew or Christian he was a Giaour, and killed him. They did not find the Armenian, who came home to Hissar nearly dead with fright.

…Thursday, Aug. 27.
It is the day for my making up the local news for the Avedaper [an Armenian newspaper] today, and it seemed necessary to go to the Bible House, although I was quite sure that none of the translators or printers would be there. I have had a curious feeling all day exactly like the feeling at the beginning of every battle during the war. It is a profound desire to be somewhere else than in the disagreeable midst of disturbance. I am a coward by nature, I suppose, and am only able to be anything else by the grace of God.

…I went to meet Misses Webb and Montgomery at the train and found that the word had reached the family in spite of my negligence. So they were all there at the station before me and there was a joyful scene when the train came in for the ladies had been told at Philippopolis that 7,000 people had been killed in Cons’ple. All the trouble seems to be over for the moment and we can now count up the losses, first sending a telegram to Boston for the reassurance of our friends. The affair as a whole is the crowning infamy of the infamous reign of Abdul Hamid. For 36 hours the lowest rabble have been allowed to wreak their hate on the Armenians in all parts of the city without hindrance. Of course the folly of the revolutionists was the excuse. But the men who made the outbreak were in general allowed to escape, and the cowardly assassination of near 5,000 unarmed and defenseless people who feared the revolutionists more than the Turks do was a crime which throws into the shade entirely any folly or crime of the anarchist Armenians whom the Turkish troops could have disposed of in an hour without shedding a drop of innocent blood.

…Today I have seen family after family walking the streets weeping, barefoot, bareheaded men, women and children alike dressed only in their night garments with some dressing gown or old shawl thrown over them, these being all that is left to them of their property, and they left to seek some shelter where they can hide their shame of abject poverty and seek a beggar’s crust. The men who did these things were not men but devils. They stripped the houses and in every case destroyed with axes pianos, tables, bookcases, chairs and other property that they could not carry away. They were not content to kill with clubs, they cut to pieces with knives. I have come across more than one large stone with a bloody point that told the story of its use to crush some wretch’s skull. There was no pity, no conscience, no thought of anything but glee in the festival of gratified hate and bloodthirsty passion for gore.

…I have nothing more to say of these horrors. There are no words left in which to describe them. I feel like a sneak for being here, protected by my flag, while these poor wretches have been butchered for looking longingly at the freedom which those have who have flags of their own.

…In town I found all quiet but a terrible fear among all the people. I forgot to say that in the morning a young woman came up to me who declared that she knew the plans of the revolutionists and that a new outbreak was to take place about the middle of the afternoon, which would exceed anything yet seen in violence. She therefore begged to be allowed to move into the college premises. I gave the usual answer, that people may not come merely for fear but that if there is a real massacre commenced in Scutari they will all be received at the college. “Yes,” she said, “after we are all killed you will open the gates for us.”

…I made this journal in three copies in order to send to all the different centres of our family. But just before I went to Scutari Sunday, Mr. Terrell told me that I must destroy any papers which I did not care to have the Turks see, for a search of the houses might be made. So I tore up the two other copies and by mistake tore up clearest one. Please let this go the rounds and reach Grandma and Uncle William and Cousin Charlie as well. Let it be understood that no part of it must be given to the newspapers on any consideration whatever. We are all well and hopeful that the Hand which has been our guard hitherto will still keep us safe. But I am very glad that Isabel and Helen have not had the horrors of these days to go through.

Additional letters and pdf of originals:






The U.N. and the Challenge to Provide an International Education

When the United Nations formed in 1945, there was a lot of interest in creating an affiliated educational initiative.  Advocacy for a specialized school came from both within and without the organization, and after some debate about pedagogy, the United National Internal School (UNIS) was established in 1947.

In this episode of New York: A Portrait in Sound, you’ll hear the many voices of students as they describe their education and their relationships with their peers of other nationalities.

Two main concerns arose in the discussion of establishing a UN School; first, who would be allowed to participate? A committee of New York educators proposed to UN officials a school open not only to children of UN diplomats, but also to American children from outside the UN community. Arthur Sweetser, co-founder of a school in Geneva with similar international values, provided an alternate view based on his own experience, suggesting the school be lead under the advisement of UN parents, and that admission be limited to UN children.

The second concern regarded the mission of the school itself: would its goal be to create educated, international “citizens of the world”? Or would the school emphasize student’s cultural roots, maintaining their connection to their unique language and culture while growing up in the US? In the above clip from the 1960s, you’ll hear the headmaster and various teachers talk about the wide range of nationalities represented and the school’s focus on teaching world history.

In the end, of the approximately 1,000 children of UN officials in 1948, 70% were under the age of nine, and the UN’s private International Nursery School opened in 1947 with twenty pupils of fifteen nationalities. Today, the private International School has over 1,550 students of 125 nationalities, accepting applications from children both within and without of the UN community.