Tait and Watson Book Collections

Will you need to consult books from the Tait and Watson Collections over the next few weeks?

The Library will soon be upgrading two of its closed access storage areas.

From 27th November to 20th December, we will not be able to access books in the Tait and Watson Collections. If you want to access books in these collections,  let us know by Monday 26thNovember at the latest, so that we can retrieve stock before it goes into storage.

Only books in the Tait and Watson collections are affected – pamphlets, newspapers and archival material will continue to be available.

 

Helen Beardsley

Academic Liaison Librarian

NSA Research Director Wants ‘Accelerated AI’ to Augment Human Analysis

The need to accelerate deployment of Artificial Intelligence (AI) by executive branch agencies also requires the development and retention of human expertise, according to Dr. Deborah Frincke, Director of Research at the National Security Agency (NSA).  Speaking at the industry-sponsored media event “Accelerated AI: Shaping the Future of Government with Artificial Intelligence” (11/13/2018), in Washington, D.C., Dr. Frincke argued that vast and growing sets of “noisy data” (volumes of structured and unstructured data), make AI indispensable to human analysts.  Dr. Frincke stressed that as the government digitizes and upgrades outmoded systems to deploy AI, demand grows for more analysts to “say yea or nay on the AI output – the mechanical answer needs human judgment to get to the ground truth.”

Dr. Frincke explained that Federal programs should tailor AI technologies to specific processes where they can be most productive, rather than implementing AI for its own sake.    Where deployed most effectively in the Intelligence Community (IC), the infrastructure underpinning AI innovations focuses on getting the right people working in teams to advance research by using technology to better collect and evaluate data.

As a first principle, guidance from the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) Dan Coates, and his Principal Deputy Director (PDDNI) Susan Gordon, further emphasizes that the infrastructure improvements supporting AI need to facilitate the ability to share information within the IC, across government, and with all American citizens to the greatest extent possible.  Dr. Frincke noted that the need for policies to effectively manage AI, and the issues of privacy and search biases in algorithms that concern “Ethical AI,” will shape how human analysts handle AI output.

At the same event, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Senior Economist Alex Measure presented an AI use case that illustrates similar principles for implementing AI tools at a Federal agency outside the IC.  The BLS receives a large amount of structured and unstructured data, particularly in the form of written descriptions submitted for injury claims.  Mr. Measure led teams in the development of algorithms that were then used to read descriptive narratives to classify these injury claims.

The technical solutions developed at the BLS employ “training data,” a type of AI based on supervised Machine Learning (ML) to find patterns in large amounts of inputs received.  In just the last ten years, this method has resulted in significant advances in AI such as facial recognition.  The technology works by tagging and orchestrating large amounts of “noisy data” into a system.

In the past, the use of training data to produce AI outcomes required supercomputers, but computing power has advanced so far that teams at the BLS are able to train a system on a million data points by using no more than government-issued laptops.  Despite the enormous volumes of data, computing power was not the most difficult piece of the project.

Mr. Measure found that the biggest challenge at the BLS proved to be communicating the need to integrate the AI solutions into the organizational system.  This required cultivating the support of upper management, and benchmarking human outputs to compare with the automated solutions.  Human experts re-coded injury narratives and used standard classification methods, constantly measuring biases to adjust quantitative measures.  He stated that correctly assigning codes also requires the continuous monitoring and re-evaluation of automated outputs.

As discussed by NSA Research Director Dr. Frincke, the DNI’s emphasis on managing AI to facilitate information sharing, and augment the work of human analysts in the IC, reflects the imperative for modernizing the national security classification system long supported by the PIDB.  Just as the DNI recognizes the need for new policies and practices to implement emerging technologies in the IC, the automation of data classification at the BLS demonstrates the power of AI and ML to achieve efficient outcomes.

The PIDB promotes modernization to upgrade the efficiencies of similar processes in the classification and declassification of national security information at the enterprise level across the Federal government.  The success of IC teams in implementing AI projects, and the currently dispersed nature of innovations such as the use case presented by the BLS, demonstrate that the executive branch agencies would do well to follow the example of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence in coordinating the implementation of emerging technologies across administrative silos.

Percy Winner, Distinguished News Commentator

Percy Winner belonged to a stable of news commentators heard on WQXR before and during World War II —a distinguished group that also included Quincy Howe, Lisa Sergio, and Estelle M. Sternberger. Some were staff and some on contract, but all were thoughtful and excellent journalists. In this pre-war commentary from Feb. 2, 1938, Winner analyzes the profound changes that have taken place in both Europe and America, and presciently argues that February 1938 marks “the definitive conclusion of the post-war [World War I] period” and the beginning of its successor, “the new pre-war [World War II] period.”Percy Winner is often noted as being the first American journalist to interview Mussolini; but his story, particularly during World War II, is quite the page-turner. According to his son, the journalist Christopher P. Winner, his father played a crucial role in getting spies from London into occupied Europe during the early part of the war, and wrote the text of the first U.S. propaganda leaflet dropped over France after the Germans invaded. (That leaflet read in part, “To you who gave us liberty, we shall restore liberty.”) Percy Winner was also the wartime regional chief of the U.S. Office of War Information for France, Belgium, North Africa, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. After World War II, Winner was a senior editor and foreign correspondent for The New Republic, the author of three novels, and director of foreign area studies at American University before his death at the age of 74 in 1974. Christopher P. Winner writes in detail his father’s encounter with Mussolini in Il Duce’s Crackers.

 

 

 

 

 

Stan Lee talks about his creations in 1970

In 1970 Stan Lee sat down with New York Magazine’s Lindsy and Lawrence Van Gelder on WNYC to talk about his super heroes as real people in a real world with real world problems, super powers aside. Contemporary issues and problems figure prominently in the Marvel Comic stories and Lee talks about women’s movement and possibility of women super heroes getting their own series. Responding to the age-old question about their negative influence, he says it’s no longer an issue today and that comics today are a public service. He also argues that ‘there is far more liberalism in children’s books today than in comics.’

Looking Back and Moving Forward, PIDB Promotes Modernization, Efficiency in Declassification

On October 27, 1999, when he introduced the first bill to create the Public Interest Declassification Board (PIDB), Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan cited the founding patriot James Madison: “A people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives.”

Sen. Moynihan argued that in the decades after World War II, arming citizens with knowledge had become increasingly difficult to achieve.  By 1999, more than 1.5 billion documents over 25 years old had been restricted from the public for national security reasons.  He perceived that state secrets not only “impoverish our country’s historical record,” but impede Americans from making the most of their national experience because “both mistakes and triumphs fall through the cracks of our collective history, making it much harder to resolve key questions about our past and to chart our future actions.”

Above all, Sen. Moynihan observed that the “warehousing and withholding” of historical evidence fosters the spread of conspiracy theories, exploited to undermine responsible government by what the mid-20th Century historian Richard Hofstadter called “The Paranoid Style in American Politics” (1964).  Sen. Moynihan understood that greater openness in regulating state secrets would better allow “for the government to explain itself and to defend its actions” against implausible interpretations, and to better promote the informed decision-making that James Madison found so crucial to self-government in the American Republic.

To better inform both policymakers and citizens, Sen. Moynihan’s legislation proposed “a centralized, rational way” for Congress and the White House to lead the declassification of historically significant records, “all the while seeking maximum efficiency and disclosure.”  As an instrument for efficiency in disclosure, his bill put forth the establishment of what became the PIDB: a nine-member board, five appointed by the President, and one each by the Senate Majority and Minority leaders, the House Speaker and the House Minority leader.

This nonpartisan board of Congressional and Presidential appointees, tasked with prioritizing and expediting declassification, was enacted by Congress as “The Public Interest Declassification Act of 2000.”  It derived from one of 16 recommendations presented in the final report (March 1997) of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy, also known as the “Moynihan Commission” after its chair, Sen. Moynihan.

In addition to its legislative mandate, the Moynihan Commission’s legacy to PIDB included personnel.  Moynihan Commission member Martin C. Faga, a former Director of the National Reconnaissance Office and Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Space, later served as a member of the PIDB (2004-2014) and continues to advise the Board informally. Joan Vail Grimson, who served as Counsel for Security Policy for the Moynihan Commission, also served as a PIDB member (2005-2008).

Today, the exploding volume of information and costs of government secrecy make the PIDB’s pursuit of efficiency in declassification more relevant than ever before.  In 2018, the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) reported to the President that for FY 2017, classification cost the Federal government $18.49 billion, and an additional $1.49 billion spent by private industry supporting Federal contracts.  As agencies prepare for the requirement to submit only electronic records to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) by 2022, declassification processes remain hamstrung by analog technologies, outmoded policies, and an obsolete information management structure that compound the costs and burdens of secrecy.

The final report of the Moynihan Commission included a section on the implications of emerging technologies for information security that continue to grow at the center of PIDB’s role in arming citizens with the knowledge required for self-government.  With foresight, the report warned that the information revolution “requires a fundamental rethinking of traditional approaches to safeguarding national security information.”

The PIDB continues to promote modernization and efficiency in classification and declassification through evidence-based policy recommendations, on the conviction of Thomas Jefferson’s revolutionary dictum, which Sen. Moynihan defended in his last address to Congress: “An informed citizenry is vital to the functioning of a democratic society.”

Scary Books for Children?: Edward Gorey in the Marsha Gontarski Children’s Literature Collection

This is a guest-post by students Josalin Hughes and Julia Kleser, Editing, Writing, and Media majors, whose project for their Advanced Writing and Editing course this semester is to help create content highlighting portions of Special Collections holdings. 
Black and white illustration of a group of children in the shadow of a tall, skeletal man titled The Gashlycrumb Tinies.
Child-rearing, Gorey style .

As we progress from the otherworldly and spooky atmosphere of October and deeper into the holiday spirit of November, it can be hard to let go of Halloween. After all, the exciting and haunting energy has been building since the first of the month. We hope everyone had a happy Halloween and want to introduce the work of an author near and dear to our hearts. Edward Gorey was a curious character who created spectacular—or spooktacular, rather, to stay in-season—books for children. Although not gory, as his name may suggest, some readers describe his art as “unnerving” or “creepy.” Marsha Gontarski, the researcher who compiled and donated the entire Marsha GontarskiChildren’s Literature Collection, refers to his style as “subtle and unsettling.”

Girl on Fire

Black and white illustration taken from “The Gashlycrumb Tinies” of a little girl surrounded by a large flame in an otherwise dark room. It is captioned “R is for Rhoda consumed by a fire."
Rhoda on fire!

One of the most well-known works, and perhaps most suitable for this recently passed holiday, is The Gashlycrumb Tinies which you can find in the Marsha Gontarski Collection. As pictured below, the poem takes on the form of a traditional alphabet-style book. Where Gorey’s version differs though, is the somewhat disturbing subject matter of each letter; from Amy to Zillah, each letter names a child who dies in a tragic, absurdor nonsensical way.

The darker tone of the poem bleeds in through the images that accompany the single-line deaths. Each illustration is inked in heavy, purposeful strokes in all black. Without the variation of color, his style relies on different textures and contrast to tell each morbid tale.

Creepy Baby and Bug Book

Illustration taken from An Edward Gorey Bestiary (1984) of a colorful naked baby on a white polar bear skin rug against a black hatched background. It is captioned “The baby, lying meek and quiet upon the customary rug, has dreams about rampage and riot, and will grow up to be a thug."
Baby from Bestiary

Even outside of The Gashlycrumb Tinies, Gorey’s other work carries this same eerie quality, one which inspired well-liked artists such as Tim Burton. Taken from his 1984 engagement calendar, An Edward Gorey Bestiary, are a few illustrations that mirror the unsettling style seen in The Gashlycrumb Tinies, with some splashes of color. Although his style may vary to include a more clean and colorful appearance, the stories he tells remain a little ghastly.

 

Bug Book

 

In The Bug Book, Gorey follows the lives of a family of delightfully cute and colorful bugs, and their murderous plot against the black bug who didn’t quite fit in with their lifestyle.

 

 

What makes a children’s book?

Black and white illustration taken from The Gashlycrumb Tinies of a two little girls at a table, one skeletal and dead, presumably related to the large bottle atop the table. It is captioned “Z is for Zillah who drank too much gin."
More dead children.

Despite the more mature themes of his illustrated poems and short stories, such as death/murder, violence, and alcoholism, his works are often regarded as being made for children. This poses a question of what makes “a children’s book,” an element explored throughout the works included in the Marsha Gontarski Collection. Do illustration-heavy works fall into the category of being “for kids,” simply due to our societal understanding that picture books are childlike in nature? Do children pay attention to the same themes and motifs that catch the eyes of adults? These questions are prevalent in the discussion around Gorey’s work, and can be asked again and again as we make our way through literature assigned to the genre of children’s books.

Two books Dr. Gontarski recommended for those examining this subject include The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales by Bruno Bettleheim and Don’t tell the Grown-ups: Subversive Children’s Literature by Alison Laurie..

Balefully Although the season of ghosts, vampires, and bogeymen has ended, the spirit of the dark and disturbed doesn’t have to. Edward Gorey has a lot of works that we were unable to include in this post—be sure to come visit them in the Special Collections Reading Room, open Monday to Thursday, 10am – 6pm, or Friday 10am – 5:30pm. The reading room is on the first floor of Strozier Library. Gorey’s books, as well as so many other works using visual elements designed for children, are available in the Marsha Gontarski Collection.

“Remembering Vietnam” this Veterans Day

November 11 marks the annual observance of Veterans Day, a day on which we honor the courageous men and women who have served in the United States military. This year, the National Archives will host a week-long commemoration to honor and pay tribute to Vietnam War veterans.


Helicopter on the lawn of the National Archives for the opening weekend of the Remembering Vietnam, November 2017. National Archives photo By Jeff Reed

Vietnam-era helicopters will once again be on display on the front lawn of the National Archives from November 9-16, as part of the week-long Veterans Day commemoration.

While visiting the National Archives, be sure to see our current exhibition: “Remembering Vietnam.” The exhibit examines 12 critical episodes in the Vietnam War to provide a framework for understanding the decisions that led to war, events and consequences of the war, and its legacy. The exhibit is free and open to the public, and will be on display in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery of the National Archives Museum through January 6, 2019. The National Archives Veterans Day Celebration is presented in part by the National Archives Foundation, Bell Helicopter, and the Lawrence F. O’Brien Family.    


Soldiers from the 1st Cavalry Division stand guard over a Landing Zone waiting for the second wave of assault helicopters to land, 7/6/1966. National Archives Identifier 100310308

On Wednesday, November 14, from 2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m., join us for a program on support and resources for Vietnam veterans: “Remembering Veterans: A conversation of what happens after Duty, Honor, Country.”

Former Senator and Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel will deliver remarks, and the program will include a panel discussion with expert panelists including Rick Weidman, Vietnam veteran and Executive Director for Policy and Government Affairs for Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA). The program will be held at the William G. McGowan Theater at the National Archives in Washington, DC. Learn more and register now. If you are unable to join us in person, you can watch the program live on the National Archives YouTube channel.

Visit archives.gov/vietnam for more information on education resources, to request military records, explore the Vietnam War timeline, and discover more resources.

Join us in the Innovation Hub on Tuesday, November 13 from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., as we host The American Soldier in World War II transcribe-a-thon to make accessible an unusual collection of wartime documents — 65,000 pages of uncensored, handwritten reflections written by U.S. soldiers during World War II.

This event is part of a 72-hour collaborative transcribe-a-thon between Virginia Tech, the National Archives, and the National Endowment for the Humanities, with additional support from the Social Science Research Council.

It is possible for classes, groups, communities, or individuals to participate both online and remotely. For more information and to register yourself or group, please visit the event web page.

Each year, we acknowledge the work done and sacrifices made by our men and women in uniform. The National Archives and Records Administration is proud to serve veterans and their families, especially through our work at the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis, MO. We are also proud to include many veterans among our staff. Find out how we help veterans access their records to receive benefits, read about the work our Preservation staff do to make these records accessible, watch historic films that our staff have restored and digitized about the experiences of veterans, and plan a visit to an exhibit or event near you.

Digitizing deteriorating negatives safely

This is the first in a series of posts on the 2018 Steffens-Colmer Studios and Don Coltman Company Photographs Digitization Project, funded by the British Columbia History Digitization Program.

We are working on a project to digitize thousands of negatives created by commercial photographer Don Coltman. His photographs are all public domain copyright, cover a wide variety of subjects, and will be freely available for use once the project is finished. These negatives are made of rapidly deteriorating cellulose acetate, which is a health hazard. They are stored frozen to keep them from deteriorating further. We had to develop a way to digitize the negatives that would be

  • safe for our staff (reduce their exposure to a hazard) and
  • safe for the negatives (reduce their time out of freezer storage)

Eric Vale. July 1949. Photographer Don Coltman. Detail from Item Identifier : CVA 586-8194.

CELLULOSE ACETATE NEGATIVES

We’ve written about the problems of cellulose acetate negatives before. As they deteriorate, they give off acetic acid, which is harmful if inhaled or absorbed by skin, eyes or contact lenses. They also smell like vinegar. The Coltman negatives are some of our smelliest acetate negatives; they were one of the main reasons we hurried to build the Friends of the Vancouver Archives Photographic Cold Storage Facility. In the decades since they were frozen, their deterioration has been almost completely stopped, but as soon as they are thawed for digitization, they give off more acid.

Distorted cellulose acetate negative. Photographer Sue Bigelow. Item identifier : CVA 586-9170.

Scan of deteriorated negative above. “Bristol Engines, shots at plant”. 1954. Photographer Don Coltman. Item identifier : CVA 586-9170.

We are pleased that there are only a few negatives in this project that are so badly deteriorated that they are very distorted. The rest of the negatives are as flat as when they were first frozen.

DIGITIZATION SETUP

We considered setting up the digitization equipment in an old photographic darkroom that had been fitted with vapour extraction many years ago. The darkroom has a lot of flat working space, so we would have had room to spread out the equipment. Unfortunately, when the City’s Occupational Safety Specialist tested the vapour extraction system, it was not strong enough to remove acid vapours.

Next, we looked at the fume hood in our Conservation Lab. We knew the vapour extraction was excellent, but it was going to be a tight fit for our equipment. With the computer outside the fume hood, there was just enough room for the rest of the equipment inside.

Digitization equipment inside the fume hood; computer outside. Photographer: Sue Bigelow.

Since the fume hood has a stainless steel sill that is 5cm above the level of the surface inside, we created a platform out of foam to raise the keyboard and mouse to a comfortable working height level with the top of the sill.

Foam platform raising the keyboard and mouse to be level with the sill. Photographer Sue Bigelow.

Digitization technician Mandy Roddick using the equipment. Photographer Sue Bigelow.

This setup has been working well since May.

WORKFLOW

In order to limit the amount of time the negatives spent thawed, we made many trips into the freezer every day to retrieve and return small batches of negatives. Once they were thawed, the negatives would be scanned onto an external hard drive. The scans would be processed and inspected at one of our digitization workstations elsewhere in the building, using a better monitor. Then the negatives could be returned to the freezer.

We will let you know when these images are available in our database. In the meantime, here are a couple more as a preview.

Odeon Theatres Ltd., Hastings St. – interior of theatre. Dec. 3, 1946. Photographer Don Coltman. Item identifier : CVA 586-9965.

H.B.Co. [Hudson’s Bay Company] display – B.C. Apple window. Feb. 1947. Photographer Don Coltman. Item identifier : CVA 586-9881.

Skeletons In Our Closet: Heavy Small Collections

This blog post is a slightly edited version of a talk I gave last Friday to our regional professional organization, New England Archivists. We have a one-day meeting in the fall, and this year it was held at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library in Boston. Our theme for the meeting was ethics in archives, and each of the nine presenters discussed collections or events that dealt with ethical challenges. 

Like librarians and doctors, archivists have a code of ethics that guides our work. You can read ours here: Society of American Archivists: Core Values and Code of Ethics for Professional Archivists. Shared discussion and consideration with colleagues is an important way for us to develop and learn as professionals, especially about ethical questions, which are always matters of judgment.


Describing Archival Collections—Ethical Considerations

It’s hard to say no to your boss, especially when it’s your first job as a professional archivist. Reprocessing the

Frederic Brewster Loomis (AC 1896) Papers

took far more of my time and labor than either of us expected. Negotiating this collection and its ethical demands was both personally and professionally challenging. Looking back now, nearly a year later, I find that I can better trust my own ethical judgments and see more vividly the violence inherent in overly “neutral” or “objective” descriptive practices.

A 1758 portrait of Lieutenant General Lord Jeffrey Amherst in his British army uniform, covered by a large red NO symbol (a circle with a slash through it).
A giant inflatable purple mammoth looms over the quadrangle as new students and their parents walk by.

Replacing an imperialist, genocidal mascot–Lord Jeffrey Amherst, who proposed gifting  smallpox-infested blankets to Native communities–with a huge purple mammoth was an excellent idea. The 20-ft tall inflatable version in the right-hand image above greeted our new first year students this fall.


Why do we have a mammoth?

image4

This guy, Frederic Brewster Loomis. He’s the one on the left.

His friends called him “Mud Puppy.” He’s standing in the workroom next to the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) fossil skeleton he recovered in 1923 and 1925. 

The new mascot meant that this paleontologist’s two boxes of papers were now a priority to reprocess, with an eye towards eventual digitization. This seemed to be an easy job for the new archivist (me). But when I began reading Loomis’s accounts about the 1923 and 1925 digs in Melbourne, Florida,I realized that in addition to mammoth fossils, Loomis recovered human remains and artifacts.

Suddenly, this collection was not as easy as I had expected it to be.



As I continued processing, I began noting the locations of Loomis’s worksites, which could be vague, noted only by a creek or town name. I also began looking for more context in museum and anthropology literature, focusing on the 1990 North American Graves Repatriation and Protection Act (NAGPRA), and the ethical responsibilities of institutions holding Indigenous bodies and artifacts.

NAGPRA reviews and inventories had in fact been conducted for the holdings of the Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst’s science museum. Loomis’s work had focused on museum collection growth, and his shipments of  fossils became a large percentage of the holdings.

 


 

BOO the UNDEAD T. rex @SUEtheTrex. Portrait shows the T. rex's large open mouth and many sharp teeth. Profile text-Legendary Fossil. Apex Predator. National Treasure. New Suite Getter. All Caps Name Haver. They Them Pronoun User. LARGE MURDERBIRD. Chicago, IL (via South Dakota).I initially assumed that the non-human fossils were not an ethical concern, until I remembered SUE. The T. rex fossil at the Field Museum (Chicago, IL) had been purchased at auction for $8 million after protracted court cases were required to determine ownership after the 1990 dig on the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation.

The Field Museum does science outreach and education through SUE’s Twitter persona, @SUEtheTrex.

The museum’s site about SUE discusses how they came to the museum, and what paleontologists have learned about tyrannosaurus rex.

The non-human fossils were valuable resources, and their removal to Amherst College was not harmless. For more analysis, I recommend Lawrence Bradley’s book Dinosaurs and Indians in the references.


 

In order to acknowledge where the specimens like our mammoth came from, I used ARCGis (precision map creation software) to map Loomis’s digs with varied precision, depending upon his location descriptions in publications and correspondence.

Overlaying maps of Indigenous nations’ homelands and treaties allowed me to identify the peoples Loomis and fellow paleontologists before and since had exploited.

A map of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, and the Lakota Pine Ridge Sioux Reservation. Arrows and circles show dig sites.

This map shows where South Dakota, Nebraska and Wyoming meet, with green circles around the locations where Loomis recorded digs. The names of Indigenous nations indicate the recorded names of the nations as different treaties were signed.

 


 

But even “non-reservation” land had only been taken barely a generation before: Loomis was digging at Wounded Knee Creek 40 years after the Wounded Knee Massacre of Lakota men, women and children in 1890.

A map of Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Reservation, with the label

This map zooms in onto the Lakota Pine Ridge Reservation. Wounded Knee Creek was the only identifier Loomis noted for these excavations, so the entire length of the creek is highlighted.



I wanted to provide researchers with this context and to create description that acknowledged the harmful nature of this creator’s work and how exploration and exploitation entwine in fieldwork and research across fields, and to recognize the Indigenous communities affected by his excavations, without ignoring Loomis’s dedicated work as a faculty member and teacher.

Here’s what I wanted to write:

This dead white guy stole lots of stuff for

Overly blunt summary can be a satisfying reaction when confronting people’s harmful actions, but this phrasing would not help a researcher wanting to understand Loomis and his papers.

 



I ended up with this:

Throughout his career, he collected both fossils and Native artifacts for Amherst College collections from the homelands and reservations of Native nations.

—Biographical note, Frederic Brewster Loomis (AC 1896) Papers, 1896-1938 https://asteria.fivecolleges.edu/findaids/amherst/ma18.html

Furthermore, one paragraph of the biographical note explicitly situates paleontology’s development within the settler colonial wars against Indigenous peoples of the late 19th century, and its contribution to other forms of resource extraction like mining and oil (and other fossil fuel) extraction.

That paragraph took a lot of revision: was I editorializing? Over-interpreting?

My own judgment was that omitting this background would in fact be contributing to the white supremacist and settler myths of science and individual careers as worth more than human lives and well-being.



The second descriptive tactic I used involved the mapping I described earlier.

June-September 1931

Accompanied by Louis H. Walz (AC 1931) and John W. Harlow.

South Dakota: Porcupine and Wounded Knee Creeks, Pine Ridge Reservation. In Oglala Lakota Nation.

Wyoming: Van Tassell. On Lakota and Arapaho homelands taken by the Act of February 28, 1877.

—Expedition chronology, Frederic Brewster Loomis (AC 1896) Papers, 1896-1938 https://asteria.fivecolleges.edu/findaids/amherst/ma18.html

In creating a chronology of his fieldwork, I named the nations where Loomis worked. The repetition over his 20+ documented digs helps underline and reinforce Indigenous presence and sovereignty. This example corresponds to the highlighted site on the second map image.


 

Part of archival work is documenting who and where our collections come from. We keep records about our collections that track how we acquired the materials we hold. In archives, we typically define collections by their source (whether from a person, a family, or an organization like the Office of Admissions). This practice (and related actions like not mixing materials from different origins, even if the documents refer to the same events) reflect a key principle of archival work that we call provenance.

provenance

n. (provenancial, adj.) — 1. The origin or source of something. – 2. Information regarding the origins, custody, and ownership of an item or collection.

Notes: Provenance is a fundamental principle of archives, referring to the individual, family, or organization that created or received the items in a collection. The principle of provenance or the respect des fonds dictates that records of different origins (provenance) be kept separate to preserve their context.

Society of American Archivists. “Provenance.” Society of American Archivists Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology. https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/p/provenance.

By acknowledging the true costs of past scientific fieldwork supported by the College, and refusing to continue the myth-making about unused wasteland and White discoverers, I simply extended the same principle to include the subject of the collection, not just the origin of the physical papers.


 

Archival description expresses professional ethics and values.

—Principle 1, from the Revised Statement of Principles for Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS)

New revised principles for our professional standard for describing archival materials are under consideration by the Society for American Archivists.

These new principles begin with the fundamentals of what we do, and why we do it. Description is ethical work. How we describe records’ creators, subjects, and content is and should be a place where we stop enabling Whiteness and its associated myths. Academic disciplines require sources for fuel like any other fire, and for too long, communities, peoples, and lands constructed as “other” have been those sources.


 

References

  1. Bradley, Lawrence W. Dinosaurs and Indians: Paleontology Resource Dispossession from Sioux Lands. Denver: Outskirts Press, Inc. 2014.
  2. Caswell, Michelle. “Teaching to Dismantle White Supremacy in Archives.” The Library Quarterly 87, no. 3 (2017): 222–35.
  3. Dussias, Allison M. “Science, Sovereignty, and the Sacred Text: Paleontological Resources and Native American Rights.” Maryland Law Review 55, no. 1 (1996): 84–159.
  4. Redman, Samuel J. Bone rooms: from scientific racism to human prehistory in museums. Harvard University Press, 2016.
  5. Society of American Archivists Technical Subcommittee on Describing Archives: A Content Standard (TS-DACS). “Revised Preface and Statement of Principles for Describing Archives: A Content Standard.” under consideration, posted Aug 6 2018. https://github.com/saa-ts-dacs/dacs/pull/20.

Met Opera Announcer’s Career Begins in a Swimming Pool.

In this April 19, 1942 WQXR broadcast, Milton Cross and WNYC’s Tommy Cowan (formerly of WJZ Newark) re-enact their chance meeting in early 1922 at a YMCA swimming pool. During that encounter, Cowan invited the young singer to join him on the air at WJZ, the New York metropolitan area’s first radio station (where Cowan was the station’s first and only announcer at the time), effectively launching Cross’s renowned broadcasting career. Cross later became the first official voice of the Metropolitan Opera, where he announced regularly for forty-three years before both NBC and ABC microphones. Although Milton Cross would become known as the ‘dean of announcers,’ his relationship with the broadcast microphone began at WJZ as a tenor soloist, and continued for a couple of months on various music programs. As he explains to Cowan in this somewhat hokey recreation, the 24-year-old’s modest aim in life was to be a public school music teacher. But this was the dawn of broadcasting, and radio’s popularity was growing with each day. By mid-March of 1922, Cross was hired as WJZ’s second announcer, and it wasn’t long before his career goal shifted, as he became convinced that radio announcing was as much an art as singing.  The scripted program, Stars Are Made, takes us briefly through Cross’s broadcasting milestones and advice for would-be announcers, including women. So it’s no surprise the show was produced and sponsored by John F. Gilbert, the Director of the School of Radio Technique at Radio City in Rockefeller Center. Announcer Don Rich hosts it, a graduate of the school and editor of the syndicated newspaper column Radio By Rich. We also hear from Mrs. William Francis Gibbs, President of the New York Metropolitan Opera Guild and Association, who praises Cross and presents him with an award.

The School of Radio Technique was billed at the time as America’s oldest school devoted exclusively to radio broadcasting. In 1947 the school produced and marketed the ‘Oralexicon,’ the first recorded pronouncing dictionary for classical music. The four 12-inch Vinylite records were recorded by the their ‘oralexicographer,’ Milton Cross.

Another item from Milton Cross’s sonic legacy.
(A. Lanset Collection)

 

Recapping Archives Month at FSU

October is a special month for those us in the archives. It’s an entire month to celebrate our collections and, more importantly, our work which is often shrouded in mystery. Even for our co-workers in libraries. So, archivists have embraced American Archives Month, held every October, as a way to share what it is we do.

Visitors to our FSU Faculty & Staff Open House on October 26, 2018
Visitors to our FSU Faculty & Staff Open House on October 26, 2018

For us here in Special Collections & Archives this year, we started October by participating in #AskAnArchivist day on October 3, 2018, by staging a takeover of the FSU Libraries twitter feed, answering questions and participating in discussions that happened all over the Twittersphere. You can check out the hashtag #AskAnArchivist and the FSU Libraries twitter page to catch up on those tweets.

We had some celebration of the month here on the blog. We opened a new exhibit on protest in poetry, highlighted our Artist Book and Napoleon collections, shared a new digital collection available in our digital library, talked about our new records on FSU presidents, and looked for the spooky side of Special Collections for Halloween.

Special Collections & Archives hosted our first Open House for Archives Month this year for our faculty and staff here in FSU Libraries. We hope to grow this event in the coming years so more people on campus and in the community can come and see our collections and talk to us about our work.

Lastly, we also had our annual tradition of visiting Paul Dirac’s gravesite and cleaning the headstone. Dirac, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist, retired to Tallahassee and taught at FSU while he lived here. Upon his death, his papers and collections came here to FSU and is a cornerstone collection to our History of Science materials.

Cleaning Dirac's headstone at Roselawn Cemetery, October 30, 2018
Cleaning Dirac’s headstone at Roselawn Cemetery, October 30, 2018

 

Soprano Geraldine Farrar Pays Tribute to Her Teacher Lilli Lehmann

Lilli Lehmann by Julius Cornelius Schaarwächter in 1903.
(Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main/Wikimedia Commons)

On December 10, 1939 opera and film star Geraldine Farrar took to the WQXR airwaves to celebrate her teacher, Lilli Lehmann. Next to her mother, Farrar says, the great soprano “was to exercise the most important influence in my musical career.” Farrar plays classical DJ and illustrates the singer’s career drawing on rare recordings of Lehmann that have survived as well as a number of her own discs to make her points. I should note, the above audio is a ‘reconstruction’ of that program based on the original Farrar broadcast narration with most of the 78 rpm disc recordings inserted afterward.  

Farrar wrote about the first meeting with her mentor in Geraldine Farrar, The Story of an American Singer published in 1916.

A signed Lilli Lehmann photo to Geraldine Farrar.
(From Farrar’s Autobiography)

“About this time I first met Madame Lilli Lehmann, to whose far-reaching influence I attribute much of the success which has come to me. I felt the need of the careful instruction of a master. Of course, the idol of music-loving Germany was then, as now, Lilli Lehmann. I wrote to her, asking if I could sing for her with the idea of becoming her pupil. There was no answer. Lilli, with her extensive correspondence and active life, was probably too busy to consider such a matter as a new pupil. Then my mother wrote. In reply came a very concise and businesslike communication. Yes, Lilli had received the letter from me, but, owing to my eccentric handwriting, had been unable to decipher it. My mother’s penmanship was clearer, and so Lilli wrote that she would be willing to hear me sing, without promising to accept me as her pupil, however.

“An appointment was made for us to call at half-past nine o’clock in the morning at her home in Grunewald, half an hour’s ride from Berlin, and, though the day was cold and wintry, my mother and I were there promptly on time.

“Beautiful Lilli Lehmann—stately and serene as a queen; with a wonderful personality which seemed naturally to dominate every presence in the room; past the meridian of life yet with an unbroken record of world achievement behind her; greatest living exponent of Mozart, of Brahms, of Liszt, of Wagner—what more can I say of her than that I approached her with the deference and respect which were her due? I was an eager and humble beginner; she of another generation. My desire to secure her as my instructor seemed almost presumptuous; yet, after hearing me sing, Lilli kindly consented to take me, and I am happy and proud to state that I have been her pupil at all times since that first meeting.

“Lilli insisted that I should essay one Wagnerian rôle. Under her direction I studied Elizabeth in “Tannhäuser,” and the night I made my first appearance in this rôle in Berlin was a memorable occasion for both of us. The entire royal family was present, and Lilli sat in a loge with my mother. I should explain that Lilli, who had been a notable member of the Royal Opera for many years prior to her American successes, had had differences with the direction of the Royal Opera during the years of her tremendous popularity in America, and had followed her own sweet will by remaining here several seasons without receiving the necessary permission from the Intendant to do so.”

 

Working with the Napoleon Collection

A guest post by Brianna McLean, who currently works in Special Collections and the Heritage Museum.  She is a history graduate student working on her M.A. in Early Modern European History.

This semester, I have been working with our Rare Books Librarian, Rachel Duke, and learning about the Napoleon Collection here in Special Collections.  As a history graduate student studying Early Modern France, this collection has been extra rewarding to examine.  There are so many exciting pieces, such as Napoleon’s death mask, Eighteenth-century manuscripts, documents about France’s colonies and women during the time, newspapers, pamphlets, secondary scholarship on France, and more.  The best part is that all of these items are just waiting inside Strozier Library to be examined and studied.

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Napoleon’s Death Mask

The Napoleon Collection is particularly strong when it comes to Napoleon’s military campaigns and works by and about prominent French Revolutionary and military figures.  The collection includes works by Napoleon, Marie Antoinette, Robespierre, Marat, and more.  For me, the best part of this collection are the memoirs.  Memoirs are one of my favorite parts of history because you can learn so much about a person by what they wanted to portray to the public about themselves.  Some of the memoirs are even digitized in E-book form, available on databases like Hathi Trust if researchers want online access as well. But FSU has our own digital repository, Diginole, and some Napoleonic manuscripts are accessible there, such as this 1772 regiment list of revenues and expenses.

In 2018, Special Collections received an incredible donation to the Napoleon Collection: the Michael La Vean Collection.  This over-4000-book collection is the perfect addition to the Napoleon Collection because it adds new dimensions, such as an increase in women’s narratives.  Researchers may be interested in this collection because of its emphasis on gender studies, history of sex, European naval history, military uniforms, and the history of European royalty.  Currently, Special Collections is preparing to catalog the La Vean Collection to make it accessible to researchers.

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Walking through the La Vean Collection. 

When collections are donated, they are usually kept in the same order as the donor, or creator, gave them, until they can be ordered by call number.  As a library and museum assistant, I feel fortunate to be able to view the collection in its original order.  La Vean organized his collection topically into different subjects such as “Medieval,” “Vendee & French Civil War,” “Women General,” “Napoleon Family,” and “Naval,” among others.  This semester, I am learning about this collection and figuring out the most important items and what should be cataloged first.  Researchers are encouraged to visit Special Collections with any inquiries about the collection while it is being processed.

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More La Vean spines. 

This is just a small glimpse into our French Revolution Collections. If you are interested in seeing what the Napoleon Collection has to offer, please stop by Special Collections and visit the library catalog, setting “Strozier, Napoleon Collection” as your location.

 

 

 

Recollections From a Smoke-Filled Room: The Day Party Boss Meade Esposito Stepped Down

When Kings County Democratic Leader Meade Esposito stepped down from his post in January 1984, he held a farewell news conference with the local press corps, of which the above audio is an excerpt. It was a rare and somewhat upbeat gathering for reporters who had been covering the party boss for the last 16 years. As Village Voice columnist Wayne Barrett once wrote, “selecting a county leader happens once every decade or so. Incumbents have the power to hang on until they go to jail or die. And while in power, they influence the selection of every local and citywide office holder, especially judges.”

In August 1980 WNYC’s Tom Manning interviewed Esposito about his control of county delegates at the Democratic National Convention. The Brooklyn power broker, a title he scoffed at, also talked about his political instincts, Mayor Ed Koch’s anatomy and even his saving of marriages and building of a synagogue.

During his tenure, the gruff Esposito was known and feared for his streetwise approach to politics, heavy-handed tactics, and connection to organized crime figures. He was an ‘old school’ king-maker: a political fixer whose machine was fueled by loyalty, patronage and a quid pro quo system that resulted in a bevy of municipal corruption scandals and inquiries. It is likely that a 1983 investigation into his activities contributed to the announcement of his ‘retirement’ and this press conference, despite his arguments to the contrary. Four years later, Esposito was convicted in the Brooklyn Federal District Court of giving Congressman Mario Biaggi of the Bronx an unlawful gratuity of a luxury spa vacation in Florida.

New Film Examines the Public Life of Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Original PIDB Backer

A new film examines the intellectual, diplomatic, and political career of Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927-2003), the United States Senator from New York, who in 1999 introduced the first bill to create the Public Interest Declassification Board (PIDB).  Enacted in December 2000, the PIDB legislation authorized one of 16 recommendations to improve access to government information presented in the final report of the Moynihan Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy (March 1997).

In the arc of his life-long commitment to evidence-based policy, the film samples Senator Moynihan’s skepticism toward excessive government secrecy, underscoring his concern that policymakers too often ignore even the open facts that are critical for informed decision making in a democracy.  For example, during his first term in the Senate (1977-1982), Moynihan cited the already abundant evidence of economic inefficiency in Russian food production to debunk politicians who exaggerated the stability of the Soviet Union.

While scoffing at credulous politicians, Moynihan never shied from confronting undemocratic governments on moral grounds.  In the film, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger recalls that as President Ford’s Ambassador to the United Nations, Moynihan defied more conventional diplomats by dramatically speaking before the UN General Assembly to denounce a notoriously anti-semitic resolution sponsored by the Ugandan dictator Idi Amen.  Kissinger’s State Department officials would have preferred a more quiet diplomacy.

Going back to Moynihan’s rise from a broken home in Manhattan’s Hell’s Kitchen, the film makes a persuasive case that the problem of poverty remained central to the policy initiatives that drove his career.  Moynihan arrived in Washington as an appointee to President John Kennedy’s Department of Labor under Secretary Arthur Goldberg. Serving as Assistant Secretary of Labor during President Lyndon Johnson’s “War on Poverty,” he focused on the links between poverty and racial inequality.

After teaching at Harvard, Moynihan made the rare transition from Johnson’s administration and academia to serve as President Richard Nixon’s Assistant for Domestic Policy, and Counselor to the President.  Although Congress failed to pass it, Moynihan drafted legislation that President Nixon supported to provide a guaranteed income to all Americans.  In 1970 he again left government for Harvard.

Moynihan’s diplomatic career began when he returned to public service as Nixon’s Ambassador to India in 1973, and continued with his appointment as Ambassador to the United Nations by President Ford in 1975.  First elected in 1977 to the United States Senate, he served four terms before retiring in 2001.

The film shows that Moynihan’s deep concerns about excessive government secrecy remained consistent with his long advocacy for evidence-based policy that would improve social conditions for the benefit of citizens under democratically elected governments.  The PIDB continues as part of his larger legacy, to implement the idea that by promoting transparency in government, democratic processes must also curtail the excesses of government.

Event: Moynihan (2018), directed by Joseph Dorman and Toby Perl Freilich, written by Joseph Dorman, and showing locally through November 1.  For showtimes, consult: AFI Silver Theatre and Culture Center, 8633 Colesville Road, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910.

 

 

Hugh Pickett fonds now available!

Thanks to the generous attendees of the Hugh Pickett Gala in 2017 and the Friends of the Vancouver City Archives, we are pleased to announce that the descriptions for the Hugh Pickett fonds are now available and searchable online.

Hugh Pickett was born and raised in Vancouver. His first job was as an usher at the Colonial Theatre in 1928 – he always had a love for show business. He later worked for Dingwall Cotts Steamship Co. and served in the Canadian Army as the secretary to Brigadier Langdon out of an office in the old Vancouver Hotel.

Portrait of Hugh Pickett in 1943 (from scrapbook). Reference code: AM1674-S8-F09

In 1950 Pickett, along with Holly Maxwell, took over Hilker Attractions and re-named it Famous Artists Ltd. Pickett was Company Manager from 1947 until 1964. Famous Artists Ltd. was “an artistic management enterprise dedicated to sponsoring appearances by artists and by ballet and theatre companies in Vancouver and Victoria.” Known as Vancouver’s impresario it is no surprise that Pickett’s records are peppered with names and photographs of local, national and international celebrities and artists.

George London, Holly Maxwell and Hugh Pickett in 1954. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F06- : 2014-089.0930

Famous Artists Ltd. was responsible for bringing big names to Vancouver such as Pink Floyd, Maria Callas, Vincent Price, Artur Rubinstein, John Prine, Lily Tomlin, Paul Anka, Leontyne Price, Mitzi Gaynor, Neil Young, The Supremes and hundreds more. Pickett played a key role in securing Vancouver’s spot on many international tours.

Ron McDougall, Leontyne Price and Hugh Pickett in 1975. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F01- : 2014-089.0690

During this time Pickett became heavily involved with Theatre Under the Stars and was the manager from 1952 until 1954. He also acted as the manager for Marlene Dietrich for 12 years in the 1960’s and 70’s.

Page from Pickett’s scrapbook from 1943 featuring Marlene Dietrich before he was her manager. Reference code: AM1674-S8-F07

The Hugh Pickett fonds documents Pickett’s professional career and personal life; his role as manager and co- owner of Famous Artists Ltd., his youth and travels in the 1940’s and his involvement with Theatre Under the Stars. The records include publicity materials, news clippings, scrapbooks and photographs that demonstrate his passion for the entertainment industry and his interest in and relationships with celebrities and artists. The fonds consists of a wide variety of records, such as correspondence, invoices, and financial reports; production records such as travel arrangements, artist requests and fees, stage layout designs and cast photographs; as well as promotional records, such as press releases, programs and press clippings.

Hugh Pickett seated at the Malkin Bowl for Theatre Under the Stars in 1956. Reference code: AM1674-S9-F06- : 2014-089.1003

The fonds has been arranged into nine series:

There were a few interesting and unexpected records in the Hugh Pickett fonds. One example is a number of tear sheets from British theatre companies starting in the year 1802, some of the oldest records at the City of Vancouver Archives.

British theatre tear sheet from 1802. Reference code: AM1674-S8-F16

Gaiety Theatre tear sheet from 1892. Reference code: AM1674-S8-F16

Another is his collection of scrapbooks documenting his youth, his work with the Spitfire Fund, his close friends and family, vacations and trips (local and international) and his time serving in the army. The scrapbooks contain some well composed photographs, ticket stubs, correspondence, writing, decorations and greeting cards.

Below are a few highlights from Pickett’s scrapbooks.

Scrapbook page documenting a trip to Savary Island. Reference code: AM1674-S8-F10

Drawing from Pickett’s scrapbook, possibly by Hugh Pickett. Reference code: AM1674-S8-F11

Page from Pickett’s scrapbook containing a Department of National Defence letter from 1943 certifying travel permission for Pickett, as well as a Tijuana, Mexico brochure. Reference code: AM1674-S8-F11

Scrapbook page featuring Elsa Maxwell of the Spitfire Fund. Reference code: AM1674-S8-F04

Scrapbook page with Spitfire Fund pins. Reference code: AM1674-S8-F04

Not only does the Hugh Pickett fonds offer a unique glimpse into the life of Impresario Hugh Pickett and the operations of Famous Artists Ltd., but also the artistic, political, theatrical and cultural landscape of Vancouver through the 1930’s until the early 2000’s. We invite you to come to the archives and have a look at these records. Our reading room staff would be happy to help you with your search. It is our goal to have a portion of the photographic content digitized and available online in the coming year.

We are very grateful to the Friends of the Vancouver City Archives, Bill Allman of Famous Artists and Gordon Boyd for their generous support in expediting the processing of these wonderful records. Our thanks go as well to Ron McDougall for his time and work assisting us with identifying individuals in over 300 photographs.

2018 Open Access Week Seeks “Equitable Foundations for Open Knowledge”

This week (October 22-28) marks the 10th annual Open Access Week, organized by the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) to promote collaboration between global research communities toward achieving Open Access (OA): free online access to scholarly publishing, and the international right to use and distribute scholarly research.

In May, the 2018 Open Access Week Advisory Committee announced this year’s theme as “Designing Equitable Foundations for Open Knowledge,” to encourage discussions about making information access less exclusionary, and how even open systems can “recreate or reinforce” inequalities.

The goals of OA broadly align with concrete objectives long advocated by PIDB, including:

  • The adoption of universal metadata requirements and standards for managing declassification, to help improve access to declassified historic records [PIDB White Paper, “The Importance of Technology in Classification and Declassification” (June 2016)].
  • Bringing greater uniformity, consistency, and efficiency to the declassification process, and such activities as the use of technology and interface with the public [Issue No. 5, PIDB Report to the President, Improving Declassification (December 2007)].
  • The adoption of a government-wide technology investment strategy for the management of classified information, to improve archival processing, description, and research outcomes [PIDB White Paper, “The Importance of Technology in Classification and Declassification” (June 2016)].
  • Prioritizing the declassification review of historically significant information (Issue No. 2, [PIDB Report to the President, Improving Declassification (December 2007)]
  • Expanding the uses and roles of historians and historical advisory boards [Issue No. 12, PIDB Report to the President, Improving Declassification (December 2007)]. For example, government historians research and publish important historical retrospectives that aid current and future researchers, scholars, and historians. The Department of State series Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) and the Office of the Secretary of Defense historical series should be continued and enhanced.

Access to government information is essential in a democracy; it supports transparency, and allows for informed decision-making by citizens.  Access to government information should be free and open, with equal access for all.

Together with the Open Access community, let’s all observe Open Access Week, as we continue working for innovation and modernization to expand appropriate information access and accountable government transparency into the future.

 

Ghostly Tales and Spooky Poems

One fine morning last week Tallahassee finally experienced its first yearly sign of fall (a slightly chilled breeze). You know what that means – it’s time to start chugging pumpkin spice flavored everything and devouring gratuitous amounts of candy corn! Those jack o’lanterns aren’t going to carve themselves folks, and Halloween is just around the corner. Meanwhile, we at Special Collections & Archives would like to celebrate by highlighting some of our more spooky stories and poems.


  • Fall of the House of Usher – Based on the classic Edgar Allan Poe short story of the same name, this beautiful graphic novel features the work of P. Craig Russell, an award-winning illustrator and the first openly gay, mainstream comic book artist. Comic-book fans should also check out our Will Eisner collection of comic books and graphic novels. Those who enjoy Poe (or music) may also be interested in the opera version of this story, available via Special Collections and in the Allen Music Library


Witch Poems 02 (2)

  • Witch Poems – No Halloween celebration would be complete without witches. This book highlights eighteen poems about witches, penned by various authors and accompanied by chillingly impressive illustrations from decorated artist Trina Hyman. Poetry lovers might also enjoy another book from our collection, featured as this article’s cover image, called Nightmares: Poems to Trouble Your Sleep. Speaking of witches, don’t forget to check out our works on Scottish History and Witchcraft.


If these ghostly tales and spooky poems don’t scare you enough, then come on down to the Special Collections for a tour and we’ll show you our creepy clown statues. Just a fair warning – they tend to move around when no one’s looking.

 

Arthur Rubinstein in Conversation with WQXR’s Abram Chasins

To celebrate the 150th anniversary of Chopin’s birth in 1810, WQXR Music Director Abram Chasins hosted a special broadcast with piano great Arthur Rubinstein on February 2, 1960. In this broadcast, the maestro speaks about his return to Poland the previous year after an absence of 21 years, which prompts Chasins to run some tape of New York Times foreign correspondent Abe Rosenthal recounting Rubinstein’s 1959 reception in Warsaw.

Rubinstein returns to the mic with more thoughts on Chopin, claiming that ‘we would be 90 percent poorer’ without the composer, whose work, he says, ‘elicits magic from the piano.’ Rubinstein believes the public listens more naturally to Chopin, and he himself feels more in harmony with Chopin than with any other musician, calling the composer the driving force of Polish resistance over the years.

WQXR Music Director Abram Chasins.
(WQXR Archive Collections)

Chasins then cues up examples of Rubinstein’s interpretation of Chopin through the following commercially released pieces: The Ballade in G minor; some Mazurkas; the Barcarolle; some Preludes; and the Polonaise in F Sharp Minor.

Special thanks to Seth B. Winner Studios for the digitization and access to this broadcast!

 

 

 

 

 

 

Records Transfer from the State Archives of Florida: FSU Presidential Files

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Files transferred from the State Archives.

This post is part of our series celebrating American Archives Month. Special Collections & Archives also did a Twitter Takeover of the @fsulibraries feed for #AskAnArchivist day so be sure to check out those conversations. 

The State Archives of Florida serves as the Record Center for Florida State University, meaning they hold our non-current records according to state law, and then either destroy them or retain them if they have historic value. Before Heritage & University Archives got its start, many records made their way there that would normally have been kept on campus. Last December, the State Archives transferred 330 linear feet of records back into FSU’s custody. Included in these collections are files from various University Presidential administrations, such as Edward Conradi, Stanley Marshall, and Bernard Sliger. These records contain correspondence from various administrators and community members to the Office of the President, files on campus committees, and material from meeting with statewide groups.

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Florida State University Office of the President: Talbot “Sandy” D’Alemberte Subject Files, Box 5

Other collections we received include the files of the Office of the Executive Vice President’s Administration Files from 1973-1976, Bob E. Leach’s Speech Files, and files on several of FSU’s Doctoral Programs. These collections have been especially helpful for understanding how the university functioned at any given time, how many of our campus organizations were formed, and the progress of many campus initiatives. For example, in the Office of the President: Stanley Marshall Administrative Files, we found the university’s plan to implement Affirmative Action. Throughout the subsequent Presidents’ files, we see updates on the status of Affirmative Action on campus.

Affirmative Action
Documents found in the Florida State University Office of the President: Stanley Marshall Administration Files, Box 3

These collections are not processed but are available to the public to view. If you are interested in viewing these collections, please contact Sandra Varry the Heritage & University Archivist to arrange a visit.

PIDB Member Alissa Starzak, Tech Reps Find Digital Solutions for Election Security

On October 16, 2018, PIDB Member Alissa Starzak joined a discussion on government and tech industry efforts to achieve election security, with panelists Matthew Rhoades, of the Aspen Institute’s Cybersecurity and Technology Program, Ethan Chumley of Microsoft’s Defending Democracy Program, and Jay Kaplan, the CEO and Co-Founder of the cybersecurity firm Synack.  Ms. Starzak spoke on the panel as the Head of Public Policy for Cloudflare, a web performance and security company.

Introducing the topic, Department of Homeland Security (DHS) official Christopher Krebs applauded how Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) facilitate the growth in information sharing and cooperation between DHS and state election commissions.  As non-profit, member-driven organizations of critical infrastructure owners and operators with a focus on election security, ISACs in 50 states and 13 counties currently provide incident reporting from state and local partners to DHS that simply did not exist before the 2016 election.

In addition to the sector-specific ISACs, individual tech firms now offer pro bono services and innovative tools that mitigate cyber threats to state and local election officials.  For example, Mr. Kaplan explained how Synack provides vulnerability identification to state and local officials by crowdsourcing a network of hackers “to get the bad guys.”  Ms. Starzak added that in the Alabama special election of 2017, Cloudflare had provided free services to secure Alabama’s election website, and now offers the same support to all state and local election websites for the November 2018 elections and beyond.

Cooperation on election security between DHS and the state and local governments through sector-specific ISACs, augmented by the application of digital solutions through collaboration with innovative tech companies, illustrates the potential of information sharing and IT modernization long advocated by the PIDB (see PIDB White Paper: The Importance of Technology in Classification and Declassification). The modernization of classification and declassification processes and legacy systems through interagency cooperation that PIDB continues to recommend could well benefit from the model of cybersecurity initiatives discussed by Ms. Starzak and her colleagues.

The panel on “Security & Democracy: A discussion about tech and government collaboration on elections security” was held at the Microsoft Innovation & Policy Center in Washington, DC, on October 16, 2018. The discussion will be available on C-SPAN.

The WQXR String Quartet

A commercial WQXR String Quartet LP issued in the 1950s
(WQXR Archive Collections)

The excellent recording (above) of the WQXR String Quartet performing in the radio studio on May 13, 1951 came to us recently via Ebay. The ensemble opens with Haydn’s Quartet in G major Opus 54, No. 1. It is followed the first two movements of  Brahms’ Quartet in A minor Opus 51, No. 2. They conclude the program with the third and fourth movements of the work.

There was a station string quartet mentioned as early as 1940, however, the best known group was brought together by Hugo Fiorato in the Spring of 1947.  It featured Fiorato and Harry Glickman on violin, Harvey Shapiro, cello, and Jack Braunstein, viola. The quartet performed regularly at the station for 16 years.  By mid-1963, however, the station could no longer afford to underwrite the group. The ensemble recorded two commercial albums for Polymusic Records. The first included Mihaud’s String Quartet and Turina’s La Oración del Torero.  The second album (pictured above) had César Franck’s String Quartet. The New York Times Music Critic, Harold C. Schoenberg wrote,  “The ensemble of the WQXR Quartet is something to admire, as is the perfection of their intonation.”

The WQXR String Quartet, February 25, 1961, playing Boccherini’s Piano Quintet, No. 6 with Jasha Zayde at the keyboard and Dvorak’s American Quartet.

WQXR String Quartet album issued in France.
(WQXR Archive Collections)

 

Honoring First Lady Laura Bush

Last night the National Archives Foundation presented our Records of Achievement Award to former First Lady Laura Bush.  The award is an annual tribute recognizing individuals who have made a significant impact upon the public’s understanding of the United States and its history.  The accomplishments of the awardees reflects the Foundation’s mission by highlighting stories found in the billions of documents, photographs, maps, films, and recordings in the National Archives to bring a fuller understanding of our national experience.

Photograph of Laura Bush receiving Records of Achievement Award
Laura Bush receives National Archives Foundation 2018 Records of Achievement Award
L to R: National Archives Executive Director Patrick Madden, Archivist of the United States David Ferriero, former First Lady Laura Bush, Journalist and author Cokie Roberts, National Archives Foundation Chairman Jim Blanchard. Photo courtesy of the National Archives Foundation.

My remarks from last night’s ceremony:

I’m delighted to recognize a fellow librarian! And you may be surprised to learn how much we have in common: we studied for our Masters in Library Science at the same time, relocated to Washington for Executive branch positions on Pennsylvania Avenue, and both proudly champion our nation’s history.

But in all seriousness, First Lady Laura Bush’s unwavering support of civic literacy, her passion for education, and her unyielding commitment to the empowerment of women make her both an obvious choice for this award, and for the launch of our women’s vote centennial celebration.

Laura Bush has been an educator, a librarian, the First Lady of Texas, the First Lady of the United States, and a global advocate through the George W. Bush Presidential Center. The common thread linking her life’s work together is this intrinsic love of learning that she continues to share with the world.

Laura Bush’s educational work through the Bush Center in programs such as Middle School Matters, the School Leadership Initiative, Advancing Accountability in Education, and of course, my favorite––your Foundation for America’s Libraries––all demonstrate a commitment and passion for ensuring a literate society. This mission was what President Franklin D. Roosevelt had in mind when he created the National Archives, a mission which continues to be vital to our democracy.

Laura Bush said “We must prepare our children and grandchildren with the tools they need to be informed, engaged citizens who care about individual liberty and democracy. We must teach them history. We must insist they understand the government they are blessed to live under. We must teach our children to listen, to show empathy, to show civility in the face of disagreement, and to overcome malice and hate. And we must model the behavior ourselves.”

At the National Archives, we work to provide students of all ages with the tools they need to understand history and become active participants in our government. We recently launched a civic education webpage to make our education initiatives accessible to parents, teachers, and students. DocsTeach, our online tool for teaching with documents, features more than 10,500 primary source documents and interactive activities for teachers and students. We make history fun with sleepovers in the Rotunda upstairs with themes such as space exploration and Native Americans. And we host a wide variety of educational programs across the country throughout the year.

We would not be here tonight if it wasn’t for our partner, the National Archives Foundation, helping the National Archives reach an ever-larger and more diverse audience. Together, we make civic literacy a reality. With the support of the Foundation and generous benefactors like you, we celebrated our annual 4th of July Reading of the Declaration on the steps of this building. We hosted two widely popular National Archives sleepovers. And we will launch our next exhibit “Rightfully Hers” this March on the 19th Amendment and women’s right to vote in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery.

Tonight, we celebrate this shared vision between Laura Bush and the National Archives family. Through the work of the former First Lady, the National Archives, and the National Archives Foundation, we’re striving for a nation in which all children have the same love of learning that drove Laura Bush to pursue her dreams and make the world a better place.

Thank you for joining us this evening as we celebrate our public-private partnership with the Foundation and pay tribute to Laura Bush.

2010 Olympic Torch Relay Photographs Now Available

The Archives is pleased to announce that over twelve thousand photographs from the 2010 Olympic Torch Relay (OTR) – showing virtually every torchbearer that participated in the relay – have been processed and are now accessible through our online database. These photographs are part of the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) fonds, donated in 2010, and may be used for any fair dealing purpose.

The Olympic Torch Relay Route

The OTR took place from October 30, 2009 to February 12, 2010. Beginning in Victoria BC, it covered more than 45,000 km across all thirteen provinces and territories before returning to Vancouver 106 days later. Over 12,000 people carried the torch across Canada.

The relay was extensively documented in photographs and video from multiple cameras. As part of their donation, VANOC transferred over 316,000 OTR digital photographs (totaling 1.9 terabytes). These were grouped by relay day, and each day was further broken down into subdirectories that collected highlights of the day to be sent to the OTR’s corporate sponsors, and selections to be used by VANOC for promoting the relay and the games.

Day 006, torchbearer no. 038, Abel T, November 4, 2009. Reference Code (file): AM1550-S07-F006-:

The photographs in this series come from each day’s “TB” (torchbearer) folder. VANOC copied a photo of each torchbearer that participated in that day’s relay into the day’s TB folder. Almost every torchbearer is represented in this series (although there are some torchbearers – including the first torchbearer on day 1 – for which no photos were available).  There are 12,470 images in this series, but these represent only a small percentage of the OTR photos.

Day 050, torchbearer no. 053, Paul C – Toronto, Dec 18, 2009. Reference Code (file): AM1550-S07-F050-:

The Olympic Bid Corporation records and VANOC’s analogue records were processed and made available a few years ago, but the torchbearer photographs are the first born-digital records series processed from the VANOC records. Although this series is over 33GB, it represents only a small fraction of the approximately 25TB of born digital records received from VANOC since the conclusion of the Games.

Day 076, torchbearer no. 042, Karina M – Vegreville, January 13, 2010. Reference Code (file): AM1550-S07-F050-:

There were a number of reasons that this particular series was chosen as the first series of born-digital records to be processed from the VANOC donation. This project was intended to test our digital preservation capacity – specifically, the ability to ingest large numbers of files and automatically upload access copies and descriptive metadata to our online database (powered by software called Access to Memory, or AtoM for short). The torchbearer photos fulfilled a number of criteria that we were looking for in a test case. The overall arrangement structure was simple, making it easy to structure what are called Submission Information Packages (SIPs) so that they corresponded to logical descriptive units. The content type was uniform, reducing the number of variables that would need to be considered when deciding on a processing configuration, and the number of variables that would need to be considered when troubleshooting inevitable problems. The total size was  large enough that it would test the scalability of our digital preservation system, but small enough that it could be completed in a reasonable amount of time, and wouldn’t be overly problematic to troubleshoot when things went wrong. Finally, the content had a strong connection with the Canadian public. There are thousands of photos of Canadians participating in the OTR, and literally millions of people will have a connection to at least one person appearing in the photos.

Day 104, torchbearer no. 174, Stephanie S – North Vancouver, February 10, 2010. Reference Code (file): AM1550-S07-F104-:

The original drives received from VANOC were backed up as soon as we received them in 2010. These were later transferred to the Archives’ network storage. This was not straightforward. The original images were created in a Mac environment. The Archives digital preservation system, Archivematica, is primarily Linux-based, and the City network where the storage is mounted is Windows-based. The main difficulty encountered was namespace conflicts among the different operating system environments. This necessitated writing some scripts to resolve the conflicts, and to track and log changes made to the file and directory names.

 

Day 106, torchbearer no. 018, Arnold S – Vancouver, February 12, 2010. Reference Code (file): AM1550-S07-F106-:

We discovered that VANOC had helpfully embedded some descriptive metadata in most of the photos about the name of the torchbearer and the segment of the relay. Usually just the torchbearer’s first name and last initial were present; though some had the full name (and others had no name, only the torchbearer number). Frustratingly, there were inconsistencies in fields used to store this metadata, making it impossible to automate the extraction of the metadata to use in the archival descriptions.  We extracted the metadata from the images using exiftool, and exported it to a csv file. The descriptive metadata was collected from the various fields that it appeared in and used to create descriptive titles for the images; this was packaged with the SIPs as a csv file that Archivematica could send to AtoM, so that AtoM could create archival descriptions when  the  access copies were uploaded.

There were 102 SIPs, each corresponding to a single day of the torch relay (although OTR spanned 106 days, four of those were rest days). Each SIP contained a file about the provenance of the SIP’s contents, a file documenting the original directory structure that the SIP contents were copied from, a descriptive metadata file used to populate the AtoM descriptions, and the photos themselves – as few as 8 (day 21), and as many as 270 (day 49).

Directory structure of SIPs, ready for processing through Archivematica

It took approximately 60 hours, spaced across two weeks, to run all 102 SIPs through Archivematica and upload the images and descriptions into AtoM. Here’s an example of the Archivematica dashboard that shows the various microservices that run on each SIP. These microservices carry out such actions as creating integrity checksums, file format identification and validation, metadata extraction and format migration and normalization. Collectively, these actions help ensure that the source images remain authentic and accessible over time.

Archivematica dashboard showing various microservices running

If you are interested in learning more about the nuts and bolts of how Archivematica works, we wrote about it back in 2012.

Here is a sample item-level description in AtoM with the access copy attached. The data in the physical description field tells you that the original record is the product of digital photography, that it was born digital. If the description field said something like “1 photograph : b&w acetate negative,” you would know that the digital image was the product of the Archives’ digitization program – a scan of an analogue record. Note also, that the original source image is a jpg file. That is the file format of the digital image received from VANOC, and there is no other version (such as a .tif or raw camera file) available. If you click on the image and agree to fair dealing use, you will be presented with a larger jpg, an exact copy of the original source image.

Item level description in AtoM showing physical description of original digital file and rights information

This was a successful project that validated our procedures and workflow. We are looking forward to building upon this success. There are still more files from the OTR that need to be preserved and made accessible. These include the torchbearer photos from the Paralympic Torch Relay which took place from March 4-12, 2010, VANOC and sponsor selected photos from the OTR, and the OTR video footage. Each of these record series shares some similarities with the torchbearer photos, but will have its own unique challenges. We anticipate making many more VANOC records available in the coming months.

Poetry in Protest, a new Exhibit in Strozier Library

Poetry in Protest

Poetry can be a powerful tool for eliciting emotion and is frequently used to express dissent or advocate for change. FSU Special Collections & Archives’ latest exhibition, “Poetry in Protest,” explores the genres, tactics, and voices of poets that write against the existing world and imagine societal revolution.

As a means of delving into the subject, the exhibition begins with poet Michael Rothenberg’s work in developing the global event 100 Thousand Poets for Change, where poets around the world read in support of “Peace, Justice, and Sustainability.” While some of the materials on display are explicitly poetry responding to some aspect of the status quo, others are less direct in their means of protest. Poetry containing eroticism that is transgressive push back against societal norms of sex and love; works written in dialects or languages of the oppressed insist upon the existence of those voices in the world.

The selections from FSU Libraries’ Special Collections encompass nearly 2,500 years of poetical dissent, including Sappho, William Wordsworth, Gwendolyn Brooks, Allen Ginsberg, Amiri Baraka, Tupac Shakur, and many more. Materials from the Michael Rothenberg Collection are on display for the first time since their recent acquisition as well.

Stop by this Fall and take a tour of some of the greatest voices of protest poetry in history through this exhibition of items from FSU’s Special Collections & Archives. This exhibit is located in the Exhibit Room on the first floor of Strozier Library. It is open Monday to Thursday, 10am to 6pm and on Fridays from 10am to 5:30pm.

Girl’s Own Paper

This post is part of our series celebrating American Archives Month. Last week, Special Collections & Archives did a Twitter Takeover of the @fsulibraries feed for #AskAnArchivist day so be sure to check out those conversations. 

The Digital Library Center has been busy loading material into DigiNole, and one of the most recent additions is the Girl’s Own Paper. Written for young girls and women and published in the United Kingdom from 1880 to the 1950s, the primary content of these papers consist of educational articles, fashion advice editorials, poetry, and fictional stories. 

Though hundreds of years old, much of the content found in this collection is still relevant today. The theory and instructional methods for learning guitar, for example, haven’t changed much after all these years. Each issue also includes beautiful illustrations to accompany the textual content as seen in the lesson below.

Page from The Girl's Own Paper Volume 2, Issue 61. February 26, 1881 [See original object]
Page from The Girl’s Own Paper Volume 2, Issue 61. February 26, 1881 [See original object]

Several volumes have already been added to DigiNole and more will be uploaded until the collection is complete. The existing issues of Girl’s Own Annual and Girl’s Own Paper can be found here.

We are working hard to get the entire collection uploaded for users to access and are still early in the process of digitizing this set of material. To reduce the strain on our internal storage servers, this collection is being digitized at about 4 volumes per batch. Once a batch is successfully uploaded, we purge those images from our servers to make room for new images and we then start working on the next set of volumes.

We’ve got a long way to go, so check back often to see what new material we’re adding to this charming collection!

Merging Time: Past & Present Combined

Merging Time, an exhibit created by the students of Langara College’s Professional Photography program, has returned to the Archives gallery space. It is an exhibit that merges a photograph from the Archives holdings with a newly-shot image of the same scene. This year, there are nineteen of these past-and-present combined images adorning the gallery walls.

Archives photograph selected by Luc Frost for the Merging Time exhibit. Hastings Street looking towards Cambie Street intersection, ca. 1913. Reference code: AM1376-: CVA 220-10

Digital composite by Luc Frost incorporating Archives image AM1376-: CVA 220-10

The creation of the merged images may look effortless and seamless, but don’t be fooled. The first challenge for these students is finding the locations from which the original photographs were shot. Getting a new shot with their dSLR cameras from the same perspective can be tricky, as buildings, construction, or other barriers that didn’t exist in the past may block or obscure today’s views of the original scenes. Even the height of the original photographer can make getting a similar shot a challenge.

Archives photograph selected by Kessa McGowan for Merging Time exhibit. Interior of St.Paul’s Church on Jervis Street, 1910. Reference code: AM54-S4-: Ch P47.2

Once suitable present-day shots have been taken, they are manipulated to match the focal length and angle of the original photographs. Through this editing process, the students choose what parts of the two images to blend and merge. The results are an insightful and fascinating look into how Vancouver’s landscape has shifted, or stayed the same over time.

Digital composite by Kessa McGowan incorporating Archives image AM54-S4-: Ch P47.2

This year’s selection of original photographs date from 1900 to 1948, and include downtown buildings and streets, churches, English Bay, and the Lions Gate Bridge.

The Archives Gallery is open to the public 9 am to 5 pm, Monday through Friday. Merging Time will be showcased until the end of February. The images are also available on Flickr.

Celebrating American Archives Month

Standing midway between the White House and the U.S. Capitol, the National Archives building at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue is as impressive today as when it opened in 1935. Surrounded by seventy-two Corinthian columns, each over 50 feet high, it is among the most popular photo backdrops for tourists.

National Archives Building
Photograph of the southeast corner of the National Archives Building in Washington, DC. Photo by Jeff Reed

As we celebrate Archives month, however, I thought it appropriate to draw some attention to the words inscribed in large letters on the east side of the building:

THIS BUILDING HOLDS IN TRUST THE RECORDS OF OUR NATIONAL LIFE AND SYMBOLIZES OUR FAITH IN THE PERMANENCY OF OUR NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

It is important that we never lose sight of the trusted role that nonpartisan government archivists – at the federal, state and local level – play in ensuring the permanence of our democratic institutions.

Since 2006, the American archival community, including the Society of American Archivists (SAA), the Council of State Archivists (COSA), and hundreds of individual repositories, has celebrated American Archives Month every October.

At NARA, we use this month to publicize our agency mission and priceless records and to raise awareness of the value of archives and archivists. We take this opportunity to celebrate the breadth of our holdings and locations and to connect American citizens with the records that document our democracy in action. Today the National Archives cares for 15 billion sheets of paper, 43 million photographs, miles and miles of video and film, and billions of electronic records. Like many of our archival colleagues at state and local levels, we face similar challenges of increasing volumes of electronic records—the fastest growing record form, while also undergoing budget and staffing constraints. We each have an indispensable role as the caretakers of the past and preservers of the future.

American Archives Month is a collaborative effort by archives at all levels to highlight the importance of historical materials of enduring value, and efforts to preserve and provide public access to them. To that end, I am proud of the leadership of our National Historical Publications and Records Commission who continue to support innovative research and discovery through our grants program. This program enables enhanced access to research content around the nation, funding projects and supporting initiatives to preserve and make archival collections more accessible to the public, support research and development, and improve access to state and local records.

Records temporarily stored in National Archives Building, 1937
Photograph of Food Administration Records Temporarily Being Stored in Tiers 16-18 in the National Archives Building, 8/17/1937. National Archives Identifier 12168492

The National Archives strives to be a trusted independent agency, providing access to the archival record of the United States on an equal basis to everyone according to the rules laid out primarily in the Presidential Records Act, the Federal Records Act, and the Freedom of Information Act. In fact, the law that established NARA as an independent agency in 1985 states that “The Archivist shall be appointed without regard to political affiliations and solely on the basis of professional qualifications required to perform the duties and responsibilities of the office of Archivist.”

NARA’s position is not unique. Every state has a State Archivist, and many towns and cities have municipal archivists. The importance of independent archives at all levels of government is critical to the trust of the country in its history, and the ability of the archives to provide reliable trustworthy evidence of the actions of the past. Every government archivist must be allowed to do his or her job free of political pressure so that the archival record can speak freely, and so the archives can continue to function as the trusted repository of the actions of government.

As we celebrate and recognize the important role of all levels of archives in our democracy, I invite you to participate in our American Archives Month celebration. See our Twitter #AskAnArchivist chats, read our blog posts, and celebrate our agency’s invaluable holdings and the innumerable ways we connect the American public with their stories.

I am very proud of the work of our staff at the National Archives every day. I will continue to defend the principle of nonpartisan government archives, independent and therefore trusted, so that archives can continue to be the trusted brokers of history as they are today. I wish you a fulfilling, uplifting, educational, and productive American Archives Month.

Former PIDB Member Steven Garfinkel passes

Former PIDB member and ISOO Director Steven Garfinkel (1945-2018), died on September 24, 2018, aged 73.

Garfinkel entered government service with a distinguished academic record, after attending both George Washington University and its Law School as a Trustee Scholar. In 1970, he received his J.D. (with honors, Law Review), three years after receiving his B.A. (with distinction, PBK).

Following law school, Garfinkel served for almost 10 years in the Office of General Counsel of the General Services Administration (GSA), which in the 1970s still managed the National Archives as the National Archives and Records Service (NARS). His positions in that office included chief counsel for NARS, chief counsel for information and privacy, and chief counsel for civil rights.

In 1974, while serving in GSA’s Office of General Counsel, and in the wake of President Richard M. Nixon’s resignation, Garfinkel participated in drafting the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act (PRMPA), which placed records relating to the abuse of governmental power by President Nixon and White House staff under custody of the National Archives to process for public access.

In May 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed Garfinkel to serve as ISOO’s second director, succeeding Michael Blouin, who in 1978 served in the founding of ISOO.  In 1984, after Congress established the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) as an independent agency, Garfinkel continued as ISOO Director until he stepped down in December 2001.

As Director of ISOO, Garfinkel played a critical role in drafting Executive Order 12958, which established the first requirements for the automatic declassification of national security information, issued by President Bill Clinton, on April 17, 1995.  At that time, Garfinkel said, “The big thing about the new executive order is that the burden has shifted 180° in terms of maintaining the classified status of information.” In the past, in order to declassify information, an agency had to commit resources to the process of document review. “Now,” he stressed, “if an agency does nothing, information will be declassified.”

Garfinkel continued in public service even as he departed ISOO.  From 2000 to 2006, he chaired the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG), the vast declassification initiative to implement the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act of 1998.  Under Garfinkel’s agile stewardship, this landmark effort became the largest congressionally-mandated, single-subject declassification effort in history.

The records publicly released shed important historical light on the Holocaust and other war crimes – as well as the U.S. Government’s involvement with war criminals during the Cold War – while furthering Garfinkel’s lifelong goal of greater government transparency.  “Historians, political scientists, journalists, novelist, students, and other researchers will use the records the IWG has brought to light for many decades to come,” wrote Garfinkel in the IWG final report, which demonstrated “that disaster does not befall America when intelligence agencies declassify old intelligence operations records.”

From 2004 to 2008, appointed by President George W. Bush, he served a four-year term as a PIDB Member, contributing to the PIDB Report to the President on Improving Declassification (2007).

In 2004, Garfinkel received a master’s degree in teaching from Towson University.  After retiring from government, he followed his passion to teach history and government to high school students in Montgomery County, Maryland.

In the scope of his activities, and the focus of his commitment to public service, Garfinkel remains an inspiration to the PIDB staff.  Even as we lament his passing, we celebrate his legacy in supporting PIDB’s mandate and in advancing the work of ISOO.

 

Artist Books Collection Continues to Grow

This post kicks off a month of posts celebrating American Archives Month. Yesterday, Special Collections & Archives did a Twitter Takeover of the @fsulibraries feed for #AskAnArchivist day so be sure to check out those conversations. 

This post is written by Melissa Quarles, Special Collections & Archives’ new graduate assistant. You’ll be hearing more from her over the next year but today she highlights our artists’ books.

For the past two years, Florida State University (FSU) has been steadily growing its collection of artists’ books, which are currently housed in Special Collections & Archives. These unique works blur the boundaries between art and literature, encouraging readers to question How Books Work and what they mean to each of us. Anne Evenhaugen, the head librarian at the Smithsonian’s American Art and Portrait Gallery Library, describes artists’ books as “a medium of artistic expression that uses the form or function of ‘book’ as inspiration. It is the artistic initiative seen in the illustration, choice of materials, creation process, layout and design that makes it an art object.” The difference between a regular book and an artist’s book is determined primarily by the creator’s intentional treatment and presentation of the materials.

A few earlier posts highlighted new and interesting artists’ books in our collection. The books we house encompass a wide range of genres, forms, and topics. We have several books that feature poetry, such as Indra’s Net by Bea Nettles. This beautifully marbled paper scroll features a poem by Grace Nettles (the artist’s mother) printed over a spider web design. Attached to the inside of the lid, a small silver bell rings to evoke the memories described in the text. The original poem, from a book called Corners, can be found in our collection as well.

Artists’ books are often multi-sensory experiences. Music for Teacups, a joint venture by Melissa Haviland and David Colagiovanni, is part of a larger project “investigating the destructive moment of a breaking piece of family tableware to highlight family dynamics, upbringing, inheritance, etiquette, and issues of class. ‘Music for Teacups’… rhythmically dissects the poetic moment of a falling and breaking teacup as it sounds during its last second as a complete object.” (description from Haviland’s website). The work consists of an accordion fold booklet of cut-outs shaped like teacups, as well as a 45rpm record of the accompanying music. However, since we have no playback equipment, patrons who wish to listen to the piece are directed to this sample video (from Colagiovanni’s website).

Many of our artists’ books offer political and social commentary or center on issues such as human rights. One such work is Bitter Chocolate by Julie Chen. The book itself is shaped like a large bar of chocolate, which unfolds like a Jacob’s ladder. Each panel is connected by magnets, so that they can be unfolded to reveal four different sides. The unique tactile and structural aspects of the piece are a staple feature of Chen’s work, but the content is equally compelling. Two of the sides narrate a story about the mythical Mayan chocolate goddess, “Cacao Woman.” The goddess rejoices in the widespread love of chocolate among humans, but also laments the chocolate industry’s reliance on forced child labor, abuse, and trafficking. The other two sides feature the author’s personal memories and experiences with chocolate, as well as facts about its production worldwide.

FSU students, alumni, visitors, and the general public are invited to visit Special Collections & Archives and check out our rich collection of artist books. Patrons may also wish to explore how to make their own art books. Many of our works include explanations of the printing and construction processes, and we even have books designed to elicit inspiration for budding artists. FSU also has its own publisher, the Small Craft Advisory Press. Other resources, articles, books, and artist websites are listed below.

Resources:

Articles/Books:

Artists:

Indra_01
Chocolate_02